If you trade the forex markets regularly, chances are that a lot of your trading is of the short-term variety; i. From my experience, there is one major flaw with this type of trading: h igh-speed computers and algorithms will spot these patterns faster than you ever will. When I initially started trading, my strategy was similar to that of many short-term traders. That is, analyze the technicals to decide on a long or short position or even no position in the absence of a clear trendand then wait for the all-important breakout, i. I can't tell you how many times I would open a position after a breakout, only for the price to move back in the opposite direction - with my stop loss closing me out of the trade. More often than not, the traders who make the money are those who are adept at anticipating such a breakout before it happens.

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Pole at Half power band-width. Q : Quality factor On a log scale, a point where H is lowered by 3dB from the peak value is called a half power point. Q : Quality factor. And resonance is a very important physical phenomenon The frequency at which the circuit becomes purely resistive is called the resonance frequency.

The reactive power on the capacitor exceeds 12kVA. Given resonant frequency and bandwidth determine Q. Given R, resonant frequency and Q determine L, C. Cannot generate gains greater than one 2. Loading effect makes them difficult to interconnect 3. Use of inductance makes them difficult to handle Using operational amplifiers one can design all basic filters, and more, with only resistors and capacitors The linear models developed for operational amplifiers circuits are valid, in a more general framework, if one replaces the resistors by impedances These currents are zero Ideal Op-Amp.

Permission required for reproduction or display. The first four have already been covered. Frequency Response 1. Similar presentations. Upload Log in. My presentations Profile Feedback Log out. Log in. Auth with social network: Registration Forgot your password? Download presentation. Cancel Download. Presentation is loading. Please wait. Copy to clipboard. Presentation on theme: " Variable frequency network performance"— Presentation transcript:.

Download ppt " Variable frequency network performance". Holbert April 14, Section About project SlidePlayer Terms of Service. Feedback Privacy Policy Feedback. All rights reserved. A Bode plot conversion applies to any transfer function, including network parameter matrices. Transfer functions describe the relationship between input and output signals. The transfer function provides important information regarding signal transformation through a circuit.

It relies on a simple concept: any circuit will transform an input voltage or current into some measurable output voltage or current. However, transfer functions are used for more than just describing the relationship between input and output signals—they can verify causality and track signal transformation throughout a complex electrical network.

However, most engineers do not work with the transfer function directly. Instead, they work with a Bode plot. In fact, instruments used to measure signal transfer through an electrical network such as a VNA will provide Bode plot data, rather than transfer function data. When you need to get back to a transfer function from a Bode plot, there are simple methods you can use for conversion.

A Bode plot simply shows the magnitude and phase of a transfer function, so the two are directly related. The magnitude of the transfer function is shown on a logarithmic scale and the phase is shown in radians or degrees. The magnitude and phase are normally shown together to communicate everything about the transfer function in a pair of corresponding graphs.

A simple example of a filter with a secant transfer function is shown below. A Bode plot example: in the left panel, the magnitude plot is shown on a logarithmic scale red and linear scale blue. The right panel shows the phase of the transfer function.

Since the Bode plot measures the magnitude and phase, a conversion back to the transfer function will need to include both pieces of information. Reconstructing the transfer function from a Bode plot is a simple matter of taking the phase and magnitude at each frequency and using the following process:. Conversion from Bode plot data to a transfer function.

The final H function is the transfer function. This can then be plotted in terms of its real and imaginary parts, magnitude in phase on linear scales, or for use in other analyses. How you use the transfer function depends on how the circuit being examined is used in a larger electrical network. A Bode plot is a universal way to visualize a transfer function on a logarithmic scale, but it is important to remember that there are many types of transfer functions. In general, the interaction between an incoming signal and an outgoing signal in an electrical network is described using a transfer function.

Common types of transfer functions are shown in the table below. Voltage-to-voltage or current-to-current. Power to power. ABCD parameters. Admittance matrix Y-parameters. Voltage to current. Impedance matrix Z-parameters. Current to voltage. Mixes T-parameters, Z-parameters, and Y-parameters. To better see the correspondence between a transfer function and Bode plot, we can look at some specific parameter sets in the table above. Most designers will be familiar with T-parameters.

For a 2-port, monodirectional network with no reflection, this is the typical transfer function that one calculates with a frequency sweep in a SPICE simulation.