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If you trade the forex markets regularly, chances are that a lot of your trading is of the short-term variety; i. From my experience, there is one major flaw with this type of trading: h igh-speed computers and algorithms will spot these patterns faster than you ever will. When I initially started trading, my strategy was similar to that of many short-term traders. That is, analyze the technicals to decide on a long or short position or even no position in the absence of a clear trendand then wait for the all-important breakout, i. I can't tell you how many times I would open a position after a breakout, only for the price to move back in the opposite direction - with my stop loss closing me out of the trade. More often than not, the traders who make the money are those who are adept at anticipating such a breakout before it happens.

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Upon determination of design feasibility, the successful Phase I efforts will transfer into the development and production of a Personnel Lowering Device that, at a minimum, reduces the size and weight of the present PLD by a factor of two. The Air Force has a need for an innovative solution to help parachutists that become trapped in trees or wires lower themselves to the ground safely and easily.

The current personnel lowering device being used by the Air Force is bulky and inconvenient to use. Wizbe Innovations is proposing to develop an aircrew personnel lowering device expected to be simple to use, lightweight, and compact.

Unlike the system currently being used or other conventional rappelling systems that requires the person being lowered to manually let the rope out, the proposed system will be automatically controlled to keep a constant rate even with different loads. In the Phase I, Wizbe Innovations plans to develop a working prototype capable of meeting the Air Forces requirements. In Phase II, the device will be tested by the Air Force and Wizbe Innovations will prepare a manufacturing process to make the devices.

In this proposal ISC, working in conjunction with R3Logic proposes to develop a three-dimensional imaging and processing module that overcomes the limitation of I2 tubes for night vision systems. The proposed solution incorporates a sensor, high-performance image processing, a microdisplay and all the required support electronics. The inclusion of digital signal processing will enable enhancement of the night vision imagery beyond what can currently be achieved.

The system must be incorporated into a very restricted form-factor. This is only enabled by using a three-dimensional packaging technology that allows the integration of multiple, heterogeneous integrated circuits in to a high-density stack that possesses all the benefits of a monolithic device. An architecture for the Digital Image Intensifier DI2 system will be designed following trade studies to select the optimum components.

Particular attention will be given to minimizing power consumption and to the thermal design of the 3D stack. This proposal is submitted to develop a new device architecture for enhancing vision under low illumination conditions and enabling out-of-band operation. The proposed effort includes establishing the optimal set of subcomponents and interfaces to realize the end system under constraints of size, power, and performance. The effort addresses the entire system including the optical front-end, SWIR sensor x as baseline , image processing engine with a robust processing set, high resolution display, and overall packaging for military compatible environments.

Appropriate trade studies will be made to identify and mitigate risk of system implementation. In this effort, the architectures for a solid-state night vision goggle NVG will be developed and the key technology features of the head-mounted devices solid-state, imaging device demonstrated. The approach is based on 3-D stacked circuit technology. Leveraging our previous work in this area, we will demonstrate a low light level imaging transceiver that includes a back-thinned, CMOS imager bonded and interconnected to an intermediate processing circuit, and to an OLED; thereby forming a 3-D solid state night vision device.

In Phase I, we will investigate and perform a tradeoff of the system technologies. We will then fuse a prototype imaging device to an OLED to form a stacked image transceiver. Although not expected to achieve the NVG-level performance, by combining multiple device layers with a high-density inter-layer interconnect, 3-D integration of the functions of the NVG will be shown to provide benefits, such as image fusion, not available with current tube-based technology.

The technology demonstrated in Phase I will provide an excellent foundation for a Phase II program, where improvements to each of the key components will be made, the image processing functional circuits will be developed, and a prototype fabricated and demonstrated. Applied Nanotech, Inc. This sensor package will be capable of sensing various hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, particulate debris and smoke contaminants in aircraft cockpit air.

Our sensor is based on solid-state sensing elements attached to a single platform and will maximize sensitivity, selectivity and specificity. Production units will be low cost, lightweight and highly reliable. Detection and quantification of contaminants is of great significance for environmental monitor to both military and air space traveling.

Although many existing sniffing devices may be used for pollutants detection, the size, cost, weight, and portability are primary concern in the development of a field deployable sniffing devices. Herein we propose to build high performance, low cost, compact, and reliable e-nose devices for contaminants detection and quantification.

The system has three key features. First, we have identified an e-nose chip family, called "MEMS conductometric gas sensor", developed by Boston Microsystems. Second, we propose to use Support Vector Machines SVM to improve the accuracy of contaminants classification and nonlinear unmixing for accurate contaminant components concentration estimation in a mixture. SVM has several attractive advantages and better classification performance than most other classifiers.

Most existing unmixing methods are linear in nature. However, our proposed unmixing is a nonlinear approach, which addresses the nonlinear relationship between e-nose responses and different contaminant compounds. Finally, we will use a PDA to collect the e-nose sensor reading and analyze the data.

We believe that our proposed system can find many applications. In view of the complexity of the air contaminants in aircraft cockpit, highly sensitive and selective sensor array technology is needed to achieve the effective detection and speciation. This proposed work focuses on the development of portable sensor array technology that couples with nanostructured sensing materials and pattern recognition engine which can simultaneously detect multiple targeted vapors.

The phase I goal is to develop the feasibility of a portable, low-power driven, cost-effective sensor array prototype capable of detecting, identifying, and quantifying pollutants in cockpit air such as fuel vapor, carbon monoxide, and smoke. Our approach couples a new class of core-shell structured nanomaterials as array elements to chemiresistive devices in an integrated system. We will pursue the following specific objectives in the Phase I funding period: 1 design nanostructured sensing materials on chemiresistor devices; 2 testing the array nanomaterials in detecting the targeted contaminants with the desired sensitivity, selectivity, detecting limit and response speed; and 3 build a prototype integrated system with sensing arrays, pattern recognition and device miniaturization.

We propose an innovative microchip array detection technology for combined chemical and particulate detection in the context of air quality monitoring in aircraft cockpits. The proposed technology will be able to identify and quantify particulates according size and identify and quantify volatile chemical pollutant sources e. This Phase I project will focus on the development of a suite of sensors for detection of cockpit air pollutants including fuel vapor, hydraulic fluid, heat exchanger fluid, carbon monoxide, particle debris and smoke.

The sensors will be based upon advances in nanotechnology and ceramic micromachining. The sensors will be based upon a combination of technologies including catalytic and chemiresistance measurements. Synkera's unique nanoporous, micromachined sensing platform offers advantages in cost, size, power consumption and overall sensor performance including reliability, sensitivity and selectivity.

These sensors, together with commercial off the shelf components COTS where applicable, will be capable of detecting, identifying and quantifying all of the potential cockpit pollutants listed above. Detection of these pollutants in the cockpit may provide an early warning of system failures, and will also warn the pilot of pollutants before levels are reached that could lead to pilot incapacitation.

COAT assembles data plane and transmission control plane micro-protocols into a coherent stack, while preserving binary application compatibility with existing applications as well as offering a strategy for communication compatibility with legacy nodes.

COAT incorporates network sensors which sense and characterize the network state in terms of key control variables, which are then used to control COAT data plane and transmission control plane micro-protocols. COAT architecture also allows the inclusion of application utility oriented sensing and control for mixed mode application class support. Our team incorporates a wide variety of skills including the networking technology expertise, entrepreneurial track record, standards development and DoD transition of emergent technology.

SDRC proposes to develop and demonstrate a novel networking protocol standard for a broad spectrum of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks MANET that changes the paradigm of the traditional "wire-based" wireless networking algorithms and protocols. The vision of Network-Center Operations strongly demands the needs for robust MANET technologies to support dynamic missions with prudent and effective resource use. As a result, it provides the platform on which more robust, more efficient, and more effective protocols and algorithms can be readily developed that are inherently good for a wide range of distributed applications operating under highly dynamic wireless environment.

The ASA will help to bring about scenario events that create opportunities for exercising key individual- and team-level ISR-specific competencies while the SIA will assess the adequacy of student responses to these events and deliver individually-tailored instructional feedback. In addition, the ASA and SIA will be supported by the Integrated Scenario Model ISM , which will manage agent-interpretable representations of CrossCue scenario materials, in addition to storing records of the events that occur within CrossCue scenarios and the actions that trainees generate in response to these events.

Jonathan D. A sensor operator performing tasking, processing, exploitation, and dissemination TPED during intelligence operations is often inadequately prepared to reason about the qualifiers of the information, or meta-information, resulting in poor situational awareness and decision-making. Three core components characterize our approach.

First, we will perform a work domain analysis in the context of a realistic scenario to understand how expert and novice operators reason differently about meta-information, develop training scenarios addressing difficulties faced by novice operators, develop a knowledge base of sources and types of information and meta-information, and provide insight into existing training and its shortcomings. Second, we will design and demonstrate an agent-based instruction system that integrates representations of key human and non-human entities in the TPED process, intelligent training techniques that incorporate meta-information concepts, and that include user interfaces for the trainee and for the design of training scenarios.

Third, we will validate our overall approach to training and develop measures for trainee assessment in the proposed system. We will leverage our team's expertise in sensor fusion systems, meta-information concepts, and training system development to rapidly demonstrate EMITS.

The overall approach will use COTS language specific NLP parsers, lexicons, semantic processing, thematic role assignment, semantic heuristics, single semantic representation and word sense disambiguation techniques to rapidly train systems for the subtleties mentioned above for multiple languages and environments. With the ongoing war against terrorism, understanding the subtleties of Arabic is a key requirement for U. The prototype system will train on text from emails, chat rooms, voice transcriptions, memos and published documents that will be put in a document repository.

Paul G. The space segment forms a critical element of our global military dominance. With support for ISR, navigation, communications, and targeting for military operations, we have an ever-burgeoning reliance on our space systems. This reliance provides a potential opportunity to our adversaries to mitigate and attack our key space segment nodes. Additionally, the potential militarization of space by our adversaries only further exacerbates this vulnerability.

To that end, the US Air Force is placing a heavy emphasis on maintaining space superiority by both refining doctrine and developing command and control and decision supports systems for protecting our space infrastructure. An associated emphasis must also be placed on the warfighter engaged in space operations, and specifically the associated training required by such counterspace operators.

Box Waterford, CT The final specifications will support our aggressive commercialization strategy. Due to the Team's intellectual skills and on-going related technologies, we intend to produce a game-based proof-of-concept application that will demonstrate the value and technical validity of our approach.

The 60 GHz frequency band possesses the potential for secure, low-power, and high-data rate communication links. Current implementations of V-band wireless links are severely impaired by challenges such as shadowing. ViFi's flexible architecture permits utilization of an ultra-wide bandwidth to achieve tens of gigabits in data throughput.

ViFi incorporates advanced Integrated Circuit technology that allows a highly compact implementation that offers compatibility with individually-worn simulation training devices. Both the protocol and physical nature of the ViFi system permits individual security levels.

A Phase II realization of ViFi will enable an untethered immersive training environment that promises to enhance the Air Force's preparedness for future conflicts. Accurate simulation of portable visual devices, such as binoculars, hand held sensors and displays, and helmet mounted displays have been greatly limited by the necessity for cabled solutions to support the bandwidth required to provide high resolution video.

As such, tethers on such systems have created unrealistic constraints, not there in real world operation. Such constraints can lead to decreased training value. The combination of high definition television HDTV development, combined with computer data networking's ever increased demand for increased bandwidth provides for mechanisms to be leveraged to solve the tethered portable device issues in simulation.

Selecting the proper technologies for simulation, adapting them for optimization of simulation effectiveness, and creating a flexible platform to support designs of both today and future enhancements is essential to solving the tethered problem. This proposal outlines the tasks required to analyze the available consumer technologies and leverage current SBIR developments to enhance their performance to meet the rigorous demands to be imposed by high fidelity training systems.

There are numerous challenges associated with maintaining high-quality performance in complex operational environments. For Air Weapons Controllers AWCs maintaining high levels of proficiency is a critical and challenging task because of the complexity of the domain. AWCs are primarily responsible for enhancing the situational awareness of the fighter pilots with whom they are working. Opportunities for practicing skills for maintaining situational awareness are often limited by requirements for full crews of human teammates, qualified instructors, and access to full-up simulation platforms.

Thus, assessment and feedback of the AWC's performance is often a peripheral activity for the instructor. What formal methods of assessment do exist involve analyses of observed performance that do not provide immediate feedback to trainees.

The Air Force Research Laboratory has identified the need for an interactive knowledge assessment tools that provide realistic vignette examples to support performance assessment in Distributed Mission Operations DMO. The proposed approach will leverage and extend current knowledge assessment methodologies and provide realistic vignettes with targeted mission element examples to evaluate the individual's application of specific MEC knowledge elements during situation assessment and decision making performance.

The level of fidelity of the assessment environment will address a need for realistic continuation training for Air Weapons Controllers. Information overload and cluttered user interfaces cause decreased situational awareness and lowered performance of the human operators.

Irrelevant data increases searching times for tasks requiring the identification of threats, causing delayed decisions. Cognitive burden on the user increases as displays become more cluttered, which results in increased operator stress leading to poorer decisions. Intelligent agents can reduce the cognitive load imposed upon an operator by de-emphasizing those aspects of a display that can be inferred as less-important to the mission goals. Similarly, an intelligent agent can draw the operator's attention to high-priority events or situations.

ARID agents will be based upon ontological reasoning and feedback learning mechanisms to deliver a significant improvement over the simplistic rules-based systems that represent the current state of the art. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles UAVs have demonstrated their extraordinary potential to support combat missions, resulting in their continually expanding role in high-risk tactical missions.

The move toward multiple, increasingly autonomous UAVs simultaneously supervised by a single operator, combined with the paradigms of Network-Centric Warfare, creates an abundance of information that must be communicated to an operator via displays with limited information bandwidth. The disparity between the available information and current display capabilities results in cluttered displays that limit the operator's ability to perceive and understand the presented information, hindering their situational awareness and decision-making.

First, we will perform a requirements analysis on a specific scenario to identify situations where cluttered displays obscure important information and understand how qualifiers of information meta-information such as uncertainty, recency are used by operators to reason about and selectively attend to information.

Second, we will design and demonstrate a toolkit for rapidly prototyping declutter algorithms and associated display methods that exploit meta-information. Third, we will conduct initial evaluations to systematically determine the effectiveness of the enhanced declutter techniques. Kutta uses a proven methodology and input from an impressive list of partners including the Cognitive Engineering Research Institute CERI and the NGA to define the functions and determine the specifications for the development of network-centric intelligent decluttering algorithms.

The company utilizes the iterative Rational Unified Process RUP to identify, rationalize, and detail the requirements for such algorithms. In the first stage of this process, Kutta identifies and prioritizes various relevant algorithmic qualities. In the third stage, Kutta develops detailed software requirements for the project. At the end of Phase 1, Kutta delivers a prototype system that includes innovative declutter algorithms integrated with Kutta's current UAV controller.

The combination of human factors experts, UAV control experience, and aviation knowledge, results in algorithms that are user-friendly, applicable to current UAV control stations, and aware of UAV flight planning subtleties. Photonic Systems Division, Gramercy Pl. This proposed system is based on sensors and their adaptation and interaction mechanisms to fully simulate human reactions to the multiple stimuli associated with non-lethal weapon impact.

The AMSED collect quantitative data from visual, audio, radiation, pressure, and other sensors for the longer period of time typical of the effects of non-lethal weapons than conventional crash dummies do, and will sustain severe weapon impacts. The AMSED will have an open modular architecture, making it easy to add new sensors and new interactions among sensors.

In Phase II we plan to introduce additional sensors and increase the variety of adaptation and sensor interaction mechanisms, which can affect weapon impact. DOD personnel are increasingly involved in situation in which they must control riots and civil disturbances and must capture, rather than kill, individuals to obtain intelligence and to convince civil communities of US friendly intent.

Both human and animal testing are inadequate to insure that NLW meet military requirements. In Phase I of this development we propose to analyze and characterize NLW physical outputs, sensory and physiological effects of these outputs on human sensory and physiology, develop system requirements, conduct technology surveys for materials and sensors, develop computer instrumentation and modeling requirements and design a prototype to be built in Phase II.

David B. Dosimetry studies require detailed knowledge of tissue dielectric properties. Previous studies have relied on slice-by-slice segmentation of organs from magnetic resonance images; a time-consuming process that limits application of the method to a wider variety of anatomic data sets. We propose to overcome this problem using a novel method of determining dielectric properties on a voxel-by-voxel basis.

This approach, when combined with traditional segmentation methods applied to a small subset of organs, will provide fully automated, extremely rapid computation and assignment of tissue characteristics for large anatomic data volumes. In Phase I, we will implement and test a prototype version of our dielectric parameter computation algorithms, as well as initiate development of a data visualization environment that is capable of displaying and editing anatomic data, dielectric properties, and the results of thermal analyses.

The Creare team assembled for this project has expertise in thermal dosimetry, image segmentation, data visualization, and software development. These data are suitable for a variety of simulation techniques, including characterizing the response of biological systems to directed energy.

However, these simulations are hampered by the challenge of converting the data into voxelized models. The data requires segmentation to demarcate various biological structures into valid, labeled regions where each voxel is associated with a particular biological feature. We expect to develop these tools in an open source framework with the ultimate goal of commercializing these techniques by embedding them in Kitware's VolView volume visualization system.

Box 66 Calumet, MI Allen R. Voxelized anatomical models are widely used to simulate exposures of biological systems to radio frequency RF and other forms of directed energy. A voxelized model is made up of volume elements that completely describe the internal anatomical structures. Developing a model is a labor-intensive process of converting two-dimensional MRI or CT data into a three-dimensional voxelized description.

This involves "segmenting" or identifying the tissue type or organ for each pixel in a two-dimensional data slice. Maintaining continuity in the third dimension can be challenging. The goal of this project is to create an editing toolkit capable of converting medical imaging data into a voxelized model suitable for exposure simulation studies of humans or laboratory animals.

A PDA based handheld version of the device has been created for functional testing that can conveniently be programmed to accommodate interchangeable, multi-channel sensors for specific analytes of interest such as biomarkers for osmolality, sodium, potassium, proteins and DNA. The proposed system offers an improved level of biochemical molecule detection with accompanying advantages of: small size; comparatively simple detection electronics; rapid response time minutes ; high selectivity; and sufficient sensitivity for obtaining quantifiable measurements in response to PPM level analyte concentrations.

This proposal describes the development of a portable, handheld, battery-operable optical reader to simultaneously identify multiple DNA and protein biomarkers in biological fluids for field use. The proposed device will not require fluorescent or chemiluminescent or other labels. Instead, the proposed optical method will produce a new imaging ellipsometer to offer the high sensitivity and multiplex capability of a laboratory grade instrument in a portable, field-deployable device.

The sensing chip consists of immobilized biomolecules DNA, antibodies or other recognition elements and is connected to the sample application region by microfluidics channels that transport the biomarker containing samples to the sensing area. In Phase I of this project we will construct the device and fabricate sensing chips for biomarker testing. A software program will be written to read the results from the measurements on the device.

Methods to stabilize DNA and proteins on the sensor chips for extended field use will also be explored. The sensing chips will be tested and results will be validated to current standards. The results can be extended in Phase II and beyond for biomarkers of specific interest. Richard A. The monitoring of biomarkers is a viable way to determine the health of an individual, the presence of disease, and the possible exposure to toxic chemicals such as biological warfare agents.

A deployable biomarker panel sensor that is reagentless and could be deployed for weeks would allow field medics to save soldiers lives through rapid diagnosis, prevention, and improved triage all directly in the battlefield. No current biomarker sensing technology is rugged enough to be field-deployable where the potential to save lives is significantly enhanced. Diffraction-based sensing has the potential to be made rugged because of the simplicity of the technique.

The technology utilizes optical diffraction to quantifiably detect the binding of a target biomarker with an immobilized probe molecule. Lynntech Inc. Phase I research will also include a stabilized antibody platform and a multi-use cartridge. The proposed deployable biomarker panel sensor could be deployed for weeks with a minimal of supplies.

The technology can incorporate any type of recognition element antibodies employed in Phase I research. Phase II will deliver a field-deployable prototype device for reagentless sensing of an array of biomarkers using a reusable cartridge. The FPB is based on the integration of microfluidic sample delivery with an array of miniature optical sensors and a reference channel to compensate for environmental effects.

The device will allow warfighters to rapidly in real time detect multiple biomarkers in body fluids such as blood, urine, and saliva using a very small sample volume. The device is scalable to screen in parallel for hundreds of biomarkers of different types i. In Phase II POC will also demonstrate statistical analysis of biomarker detection despite various temperatures and humidity levels.

This proposed device uses microwave technology to detect Doppler shifts induced by human's heartbeat and respiration and movement. The device will detect heartbeat rate, respiration rate, and speed of the remote subject to help identify potential threats. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of detecting remote personnel at 20 meters by building a bench prototype. Andrew O. Individuals posing safety and security threats, or those intent on subterfuge and deception during interrogation, often exhibit abnormal values of key vital signs: heartbeat rate, respiration rate, and galvanic skin response GSR.

Technology is needed to cost-effectively measure these parameters while a subject is moving or non-cooperative, preferably without contacting the subject and without the subject's knowledge. PSI proposes the development of an integrated standoff sensor that measures the three vital signs from up to 35 meters away by adapting its existing battery-powered near infrared NIR platform technology.

The Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of each measurement and provide a configuration for the integrated sensor that will conduct the three measurements. Cypress, CA We have developed an approach for measuring critical parameters of subjects in a crowded or cluttered environment that will lead to a high probability of detection and a low probability of false alarms that they are anomalous, and may be a threat.

The LADAR is eye-safe, and has a range s of meters much greater than that needed for this particular application 35 m. Our design is based on proven components and techniques, but has not been implemented for the very slow motions of respiration and heartbeat. Urban warfare reduces engagement ranges to a few meters or less. Adversaries may approach U. S, Warfighters face-to-face under the disguise of civilian clothing or may lurk on the other side of a wall.

All that stands in the way of disaster is the soldier's ability to read the adversaries intentions, a difficult task in the best of circumstances. Sperient develops handheld radars that measure heart and breathing rates by measuring tiny movements of the chest and torso. The radar emits a small pulse much smaller than the signal of a cell phone that bounces off the chest of the person under test. As the person under test breathes and his heart beats, the radar measures the motion as changing return signals.

However, the technology was never carried-through to operational capability. In a separate effort, the microwave front-end of the radar was replaced to demonstrate Lidar capability. The Lidar was not used to measure heart and breathing rates, but presumably would be well suited when penetration is not an issue. In response to this solicitation, 21st Century Technologies 21CT proposes Metrics for Influence Operations Measurement MIME , a project which will demonstrate techniques to: measure and predict market penetration, segment a target audience, detect and predict message propagation and impact, classify and predict epidemic profiles, and to detect and predict counter influence operations.

Once we have demonstrated the feasibility of these techniques in MIME, we can begin integrating the technologies into an environment that automates the collections to measure the effectiveness of influence operations, responsiveness of the target to stimulus, and predicts success of planned operations. We will also explore methods of countering enemy influence operations.

The complex nature of warfare today requires a much greater emphasis on influence operations and other non-traditional means of forwarding our objectives. The war on terrorism is not a traditional war in which pitched armies conduct frontal assaults or massive airstrikes precede ground invasions. The success of the global war on terror depends intimately on various types of covert and non-covert "marketing" activities in which we "sell" our goals to important players in target populations.

A major challenge is in understanding just how much impact these influence operations have. We propose the development of cutting-edge mathematical and statistical algorithms for quantifying the effects of influence operations. The overall objective of the proposed project is to develop an integrated bioinformatics software framework for intelligent analysis of biomedical databases, generation of geometrical models for simulations from medical images, and modeling of human biomechanical and physiological performance.

We will develop software interfaces to selected databases within the JCoBi human body modeling framework, correlate the data to existing CFDRC 3D human body models, and demonstrate extraction of medically relevant information. We will also formulate the framework for a novel "top-down" multiscale modeling of the human body that integrates systemic, organ, tissue, cellular and biochemical pathways. It will be demonstrated by simulating human body responses to typical airman physical stressors such as high-g acceleration, long term biomechanical loading on circulation, and body autoregulation responses to hypoxia.

The multiscale modeling of human body performance software will be integrated in phase II, tested, validated, and demonstrated on studies of airman responses and tolerances to stresses encountered during military missions. We propose an innovative data mining tool to systematically analyze huge amounts of experiment and sensor data in bioscience.

Our proposed tool, named ABMiner where AB for Air-Borne is the synergy of attribute-oriented induction, a classification ensemble, and distributed computation. Our proposed tool has three unique contributions. First, we use attribute-oriented induction for pre-clustering to overcome the difficulty of curse of dimensionality when mining a huge amount of high-dimensional data.

Second, the classification ensemble combines a set of independent classifiers in some reasonable manner such that the accuracy of the ensemble is better than any single classification algorithm. In this proposal, we extend and enhance the base classifiers of the ensemble in two dimensions, namely types of algorithms and variations of data sets, to enrich the base classifiers and guarantee the accuracy of the classification model.

Finally, we derive the architecture of distributed computation from the idea of two dimensions of classification ensemble for improving computational efficiency through parallel computation. In the architecture, different classification algorithms can run in different machines nodes , and the same classification algorithm with different training data sets and guidance parameters can also run in different nodes.

The information contained in these databases is used to answer research questions posed by a broad spectrum of users ranging from industry to academia. One difficulty is that, at present, there is a paucity of tools that can support decisions based on these databases.

This information needs to be converted to easily accessible knowledge. Another difficulty is that there are many such databases which are currently not integrated. Information integration will enable potent analytics and knowledge discovery. Finally, there is a need for knowledge transfer from experts to novice users which can be enabled through the use of a comprehensive knowledge management tool set. We will provide such a knowledge management tool kit that will serve as the "LexisNexis" of the biosciences world - a unified query tool that integrates information across many different data sources.

Torrey Pines Ct. Gary B. The Air Force has a need for intelligent tools that can be used to convert information from biodynamics databases into knowledge and decisions. Current methods of feature extraction and hypothesis testing require significant amounts of human interpretation. The innovative techniques offered in this proposal utilize feature-independent and automated methods to facilitate scientific advancement.

The resulting intelligent hypothesis testing tool can increase the rate and exploration of data mining, analysis, and feature extraction for data fusion. The proposed Phase I research and development seeks to construct algorithms that optimize hypotheses through feature extraction. Evolutionary computing is used to find optimal representations relating database features to predictions of outcome.

The algorithms will be designed for use with Air Force biodynamics databases. The Phase I research and development sets the stage for continued Phase II research and development and transition for field use. The technology's applications go beyond Air Force database analysis to all branches of the military, and also commercial and academic database analysis particularly in bioinformatics. The prospect for commercialization for the resulting technology in the bioinformatics sector is high in light of the fact that database mining is a common facet of gene expression analysis and drug discovery.

Air Force aircraft are outfitted with emergency and survival equipment designed for the constant threat of an accident. This equipment protects the aircrew member from the initial insult and assists survival in austere environments before rescue crews can arrive. Pilots undergo rigorous training to learn how to survive an ejection over sea.

A key to survival is the ability to stay hydrated in the presence of salinated water. Current desalination systems are not used individually and have small water to effort ratio. Luna Innovations proposes to develop a one-man desalination system to deliver water for aircrew survival. Luna's system will greatly minimize the energy needed making individual use possible. For the Phase I program, Luna will demonstrate feasibility by achieving the necessary flow rate of desalinated water with a prototype system.

During the Phase II of the program, a prototype for an individual and portable device will be designed and fabricated that will allow aircrew members to dispense an adequate supply of desalinated water with minimal effort. Luna has assembled the highly qualified, multidisciplinary team required for a successful program and has a history of bringing novel research from the laboratory to commercial markets. There exists a dire need for a reliable, lightweight, easy-to-use device capable of producing potable water for an individual from a saline water source Seawater or brackish.

The proposed device should be easy to use and require as little energy as possible from the operator. In order to alleviate this problem, Lynntech will design, develop, and fabricate a light-weight, man-portable, hybrid desalination system that takes advantage of the synergy created between electro-dialysis and reverse osmosis.

The system will operate on both man-power and battery-power. A lightweight portable water purification device has been long sought by the US military for use in survival kits. Mainstream has been working hard at developing such a lightweight purification device since , and has finally developed the configuration for a small portable device that will meet or exceed all the performance requirements of this AF solicitation.

This device, which uses a patent-pending configuration is discussed in this proposal. At 12 ounces dry-weight, this device can easily produce more than two gallons of purified water per day with drastic reductions in the necessary exertion. The proposed membrane configuration includes an integrated disinfection capacity. Phase I includes the fabrication and demonstration testing of this lightweight water purification device, which includes the capability to produce 2 gallons of safe potable water from sea water in about 2 hours.

Mainstream has been developing this technology for many years and the tremendous commercial potential for this technology is well established. Phase I will allow a full demonstration of the concept's feasibility, and provide performance comparisons to alternative approaches. The size of packaged device is about 30 cubic inches, and the weight 0. The Swing Electrostatic Desalinator separates salt from water by alternating the polarization of isolated electrodes.

The cumulative effects of its innovations in design, technology, and materials dramatically enhance the device's performance, and includes recovery of some of the power consumed, and release of it during desalination of the next portion of sea water. The proposed device has a uniquely high rate of desalination per its own mass, is absolutely maintenance free and environmentally friendly, and is high manufacturable and rugged. Although distributed, simulation-based training exercises provide an opportunity for realistic team practice, they often fail to provide the relevant and timely feedback necessary for effective training to take place.

In this project the Aptima team will combine its expertise in competency-based measures, team performance measurement, integrating data from multiple collection methods, and after-action reviews, along with its experience in Air Force Operations, to develop and evaluate a Multi-method Distributed-team Performance-assessment and AAR Tool MD-PAT that gathers meaningful performance data from observers and participants at distributed locations, analyzes it in real time, and delivers it in such a way as to provide relevant feedback to participants and facilitate speedy simulation adjustment for more targeted training.

The tool will include components that provide a broad range of validated assessment measures for observers, trainees, and the computer simulation involved in the exercise. It will provide the capability to collect measures from these three sources in real time, coordinate collection, storage, and analysis of the ratings, and display the assessment results in an after-action review or other post-exercise evaluation.

The technical challenge of this SBIR is to research and develop a capability which will maximize knowledge derivation from individual and individual to team training opportunities by providing real time feedback to the training audience.

We put forth the technical solution for application to this complex situation as "Knowledge Discovery from separate heterogeneous data and information sources. Operational readiness can be subjectively and objectively measured through the use of automated measures of effectiveness and measures of performance.

Automation of these measures is now needed to support the vast amount of information available with the use of network centric operations. Distributed Knowledge Networks DKNs provides the key enabling technology for translating recent advances in automated data acquisition, digital storage, computers and communications into fundamental advances that support data analysis and knowledge derivation in complex systems.

The DKN technology will provide the computer science to provide an extensible architecture for the accomplishment of training in the new network centric process to train as we fight. Jeffrey M. The DTC is characterized by unpredictable injections of high-priority tasks with severe time constraints.

DTC personnel must coordinate their responses to these tasks in a dynamic, teams-of-teams environment to ensure overall mission success. Next, Aptima will develop a comprehensive CRM training structure and a proof-of-concept training module, along with plans for evaluating its effectiveness. The end result will be a CRM training curriculum that is specifically designed to help DTC personnel successfully cope with the time-sensitive threats of today.

Head injuries and trauma are sustained by military, police and sports individuals where the shock or energy experienced by the victim cannot easily be quantified. The lack of sufficient data describing the peak or time history of the event prevents development of better protective devices and strategies to prevent injury. It is thus desirable to embed a recording device into the common everyday helmet worn by individuals where the magnitude and direction of a significant injury experience could be quantified and easily and quickly retrieved by medical and research professionals.

Commercial-off-the-shelf data recorders are not suitable for this purpose because of cost, size, power, and maintenance issues; therefore an entirely new design is required to achieve the objectives. Diversified Technical Systems, Inc. The proposed IER would be maintenance free for at least two years and be capable of storing millisecond time history arrays from over 80 impacts that exceed a predetermined threshold.

This data would be immediately available to medical and research personnel in the field or lab for injury assessment and detailed study. These sensors are based on Evigia Systems proprietary CMOS-MEMS technology, and an innovative approach to enable measuring and recording the blast energy, and the impact acceleration amplitude without any need for a battery or any other power supply.

This approach enables meeting the small form factor and price-points that are required in the aforementioned applications. POC's extensive experience in wireless electromyographic and inertial tracking systems to monitor the head and torso shocks to soldiers will allow us to successfully develop SMAS technology. Richard M. Traumatic brain injury TBI resulting from direct impact or indirectly from blast waves represents a significant threat to personnel in combat.

There is a significant lack of knowledge linking the actual biomechanics of impact with the injuries sustained in the field. Simbex proposes to apply its knowledge of real-time miniature head acceleration and physiological monitoring gained from developing its Head Impact Telemetry System commercially available football helmets to develop nano-power Head Impact Technology n-HIT , a dynamic in-helmet measurement system for routine wear by soldiers.

Key features of n-HIT are: Ultra-low power nano-amps with dynamic energy harvesting, measurement of blast wave energy to helmet and to head, and measurement of linear and rotational head acceleration. The n-HIT system developed in this project will allow us to quantify the relationship among biomechanical measures including linear acceleration, rotational acceleration and blast energy, and the severity of TBI sustained in order to optimize soldier protection through improved protective equipment or tactics.

The n-HIT system can obtain the required measurements without affecting the soldiers' performance, requiring additional equipment or adding significant weight to existing equipment. The proposed ultra-low power self-sustaining system will provide power for a minimum of five years without reconditioning or retrofit. Several efforts are currently underway to enhance the electronic warfare EW training on Air Force aircraft using on-board, "rangeless" EW training.

On-board EW training provides closed-loop simulations of air-defense environments for realistic in-flight combat training of aircrews. The training capability can be an integral part of the aircraft operational flight program OFP or can be an external simulator carried onto the aircraft. An on-board system allows training to be accomplished any time the crew is in the air, providing a low-cost training alternative. Although these embedded EW training solutions have been demonstrated to provide an accurate training experience, there are logistics problems that limit widespread use.

Standalone computer-based trainers require additional equipment to be carried onto the aircraft unless the training threat simulations are embedded into a component the aircraft OFP. Designing additional training modes into the OFP requires the expense of flight software changes and an associated flight test program. To support a low-cost EW training system that meets current and future requirements, there is a need to investigate a ground based threat simulation tool that can stimulate the aircraft EW subsystems and monitor aircraft and operator responses over existing aircraft data links.

An off-board training system should result in minimum changes to the aircraft OFP, will not require any installation on the aircraft, and could provide a centralized threat simulation for multiple aircraft in future training exercises. Lavender Industries proposes to investigate a low-cost EW training system consisting of a commercial PC-based application that is coupled to an existing military ground radio unit.

The EW training system will support the closed loop threat simulation by applying threat indications at the appropriate aircraft time or position over the data link, and by monitoring aircraft navigation data and countermeasure events to accurately simulate threat response.

The result will allow system demonstration as part of a Phase II effort. Training aircrew to fly modern combat aircraft is a tremendous challenge. To train properly, US and Allied aircrew need to be confronted with numerous simulated surface and air threats simultaneously.

Training scenarios of this density and variety give aircrew the ability to recognize and react for survival with appropriate maneuvers, expendable countermeasures, and electronic jamming. Additionally, realistic training is required regularly because threat reaction skills are perishable. Unfortunately, threat training opportunities are minimal. The resulting Networked Electronic Warfare Training System NEWTS can be delivered to combat units with minimal or no access to electronic combat ranges and fill a tremendous void in existing training.

NEWTS can also be integrated with any number of actual threat emitters at existing electronic combat ranges to create a robust realistic Integrated Air Defense System. Since NEWTS operates on existing data link channels, it can be deployed at any location where aircraft maneuvering is authorized.

NEWTS will receive, as well as transmit, data link information from participating combat aircraft to assess threat reactions. Securboration's technical approach to C2OSIF is focused on leveraging our extensive semantic web expertise along with our COI research and applying it to the practical implementation of C2 application interoperability to meet the information goals set forth in NCDS.

NCDS goals include making data visible, accessible, understandable, trusted, and interoperable. C2OSIF supports these goals by innovatively applying semantic web technology and COI concepts to account for both data interoperability and application interoperability. Semantic definitions and descriptions are organized into groups of COIs to create requirements reflecting the needs of the COI members e. Strategy, Planning, Assessment, Operations, etc. These semantic requirements describe things such as types of data they are interested in, the frequency of the data needed, format of the data viewing and processing , and constraints or conditions under which the data or processing is needed.

Michael C. Upstate Applied Research proposes a technology which enables an accurate, meaningful and semantically correct sharing of information among existing command and control systems. A two-part information discovery technique, encompassing pre-execution analysis and in-progress refinement, is used to identify and mark up semantically meaningful information which will be shared among automated AOC systems and human decision-makers.

These include the video disc introduced in which is supposed to reach the marketplace sometime this year. There is also a Class D audio amplifier that has been touted now for three years. And then there are Bubble Memories, which by their great density capability could take over the computer memory world if the price is driven down.

Just a little research laboratory twist, and a combined transfer and varistor device emerged in It is called a transistor. Powerful 15" woofer. Multi-cell midrange horn. High-compliance tweeter horn. Removable grille for easily balancing midrange and treble response. And genuine walnut veneer cabinetry. It's a real experience to hear the Mach One at live-performance listening levels. The advantages of Empire are threefold.

One, your records will last longer. This imposes much less weight on the record surface and insures longer record life. Two, you get better separation. The small, hollow iron armature we use allows for a tighter fit in its positioning among the poles. So, even the most minute movement is accurately reproduced to give you the space and depth of the original recording. Three, Empire uses 4 poles, 4 coils, and 3 magnets more than any other cartridge for better balance and hum rejection.

The end result is great listening. Empire Scientific Corp. This should be a dpdt switch. Could you please tell me what this equipment is? Moss, Atlanta, GA. Since then, PE has been very helpful in updating my knowledge of semiconductor theory and application and refreshing my memory on general electronics. I was planning to build a chess clock by coupling together two digital clock kits until I noticed two articles in PE that made me opt for a better design.

Williams, Knoxville, TN. A Wrat- ten No. Neutral densities are Wratten No. Should you wish to obtain these in glass, they can be supplied by Tiffen Mfg. The author, however, confirms that he has been using the No. TTY control terminal. Automatic reset and load- ing, plus full compatability with Motorola evaluation set software. Crystal controlled oscillator provides the clock signal for the processor and is divided down by the MC to provide the various Baud rate outputs for the interface circuits.

Full buffering on all data and address busses insures "glitch" free operation with full expansion of memory and interfaces. This includes diagnostic programs, sample programs and even a Tic Tac Toe listing. Note 25 Amp rectifier bridge and 91, mfd computer grade filter capacitor.

Computer System with serial interface and 4, words of memory. Two others give you a commercial set right off the shelf. Only NRI invested the time and money to design equipment with learning in mind! NRI passes the savings on to you NRI engineering eliminates the cost of buying from an outside source. Students are enrolled by mail only. The savings are passed on to you in the form of low tuition fees, extras like the TV's console cabinet and the Quadraphonic System; professional test instruments like a 5" triggered sweep oscilloscope, CMOS digital frequency counter, and integrated circuit Color TV pattern generator.

An ear-piercing dB signal is emitted the instant a CB unit is touched. Once accomplished, the programmer takes over operation of the receiver, changing channels automatically at the appropriate times. The one- piece plastic enclosure has partially isolated chambers, one for each driver. It is designed to reduce cone motion to increase accuracy and the dynamic range of the bass response. The clock continues to count, and the time is again displayed when transmission is completed.

The printer interfaces to an 8 -bit parallel port. It is said to be simple to program and install. An automatic line- wraparound feature prints lines with more than 44 characters on two lines. Multiple copies can be printed using carbon or NCR paper. The woofer is 6 " x 9", the 3" midrange is direct-radiating, 2" tweeter is solid state. The two channels can be cascaded to produce a full-range, half-octave equalizer. Automatic 5-tosecond muting at turn-on prevents the passing of system turn-on transients to the speakers.

Up to now the most you could expect from a medium-priced cassette deck was rather medium performance. But now there's the RSUS. The medium-priced cassette deck with high-priced performance. We started by going to work on the sounds you don't want to hear with any cassette deck. When we finished, we ended up with virtually inaudible wow and flutter 0. Negligible distortion. Transistorized switching that reduces signal loss. That's what you won't hear.

What you will hear is a frequency response of 30Hz to 16kHz OO 2 tape. That means cymbals, brass and strings will sound crisp, smooth and natural. The reasons: A super alloy tape head formed under intense heat and pressure. As well as high-grade premium transistors. You can also forget tape hiss. Because we use a two-stage direct-coupled equalizer as well as Dolby. The RSUS also has highly accurate peak-check meters that let you set the recording levels without the fear of overload distortion.

So you get highly accurate recordings. With excellent dynamic range. There are also dual output level controls. A OO 2 tape selector switch. A lockable pause control. And Auto-Stop at the end of the tape in both record and playback modes.

So if you've been looking for a cassette deck with outstanding performance, audition the RSUS. It only sounds expensive. Cabinetry is simulated wood. Crystal controljed chroma and timing oscillators. Boosts receiver sensitivity up to 20 db. Complete with stethescopic earphone, electrode headband and instructions. Giant 6" meter with 6 color coded scales. Complete system includes Installation Handbook.

Add additional sensors, bells, to suit your own needs. Mounts directly to ceiling with 2 screws. The comes with a stainless- steel whip, chrome-plated shock spring, or snap-in mount, and 17 feet of coaxial cable with a standard PL plug at one end. Rated at 42 watts per channel with less than 0. A conductive plastic tip and barrel housing is said to allow any built-up static charge to drain off harmlessly through the hand to ground.

Address: Oneida Electronic Mfg. It uses 46 miniature solar cells on its surface. The display is a liquid crystal device with 8-digit capacity, signs for memory usage, minus sign and capacity overflow. A method of wide-screen 3-D video projection, developed by Bruce D. Motion picture 3-D presentations used this principle in the past. The dryer the skin, the brighter the aura. The moisture is said to be transferred to the film, changing the electrical discharge pattern that is triggered by the metal plate under the film.

The program is currently being tested among 15 Holiday Inns in the Boston area. Hams to Sail Licensed hams will be able to operate a high-power amateur station on board the Santa Mercedes , during a day cruise offered by Prudential Lines. Instruction in code classes and license upgrading will be available along with a variety of social activities.

And look at what you get. Uniform response from 5 to 45, Hz. Proof of audible performance is on an individually-run curve, packed with every cartridge. Stereo separation is outstanding. Not only at 1 kHz where everyone is pretty good but also at 10 kHz and above where others fail. Logical, simple and very effective. Patent Nos. Even compared to ellipticals tracking at a fraction of a gram.

Your records will last longer, sound better. The ATl5Sa even helps improve the sound of old, worn records. Because the Shibata stylus uses parts of the groove wall probably untouched by other elliptical or spherical styli. The result is less mass and greater precision than with common round-shank styli.

It all adds up to lower distortion and smoother response. Differences you can hear on every record you play. With all kinds of records. Then choose. Anything less is a compromise. Among the items listed are a strobe light, color organ, metal detector and amplifier. Address: Amprobe Instrument Div. I had hoped in this single column to cover most of the highlights of the convention.

The Ultimate Illusion. Many feel that the ultimate audio illusion—and the final objective of high fidelity—is to be able to turn acoustically a small room into a large one, a large room into an open-air environment, and an open-air environment back into a small room. The 1-millisecond arrivals, if strong enough, are bad: they interfere with our localization of the original sound source confuse the stereo image, if you will.

A 1-ms sonic impulse and its reverberation train. Arrivals within 65 milliseconds dominate in small rooms, which is why music sounds so loud in them. In a large room such as a concert hall, a sound may easily have travelled for 65 milliseconds roughly corresponding to 65 feet before it undergoes even its first reflection from a wall or ceiling. Turning the Trick. Well, that seems simple although lengthy enough. All we need do to turn our pitiful listening rooms into splendorous opera houses is to provide reflected sounds persisting longer than 65 milliseconds.

Hence our resources are vast. Many people have by now heard four- channel stereo or some other technique that attempts to alter acoustical space. It is that of the engineering technician or practical engineer. The engineer has college training in electronics. Frequently, however, engineers are more heavily trained in the scientific principles of electronics and less in their practical application. His training usually consists of a two-year college program in electronic engineering technology.

He often has the title of engineer. CREI programs are, in fact, more extensive than you will find in many colleges. And CREI gives you the opportunity to specialize in your choice of the major fields of electronics. It is a complete college Lab and, we believe better than you will find in most colleges.

This also means you can apply your CREI training in your work and get practical experience to qualify for career advancement. You can select exactly the area of electronics best for your career field. So we invite you to send for our free catalog if you are qualified to take a CREI program. Program arrangements are available depending upon whether you have extensive or minimum experience in electronics. The Acoustic Research Digital Time Delay System , showing six of the sixteen speaker channels and a side view of electronics.

But we rarely, if ever, cross the threshold into a shift of perceived reality. Heroic Measures. The playback system should copy this spectral change, but it is not the function of the reverberation simulator itself to supply this equalization; nor should it.

This density tends to be high. Your guess is as good as mine. Then Milner progressively narrowed the frequency band over which the delays occurred, to learn at what point the spatial illusion would start to deteriorate. Outside of the delay band, the signal was not delayed. They were that, below about Hz, delaying the signal did little or nothing to enhance the spatial illusion.

These findings have been anticipated by others in the past, but never so well documented under real music-listening conditions. The level meter usually indicates the signal voltage present at some part of the recording amplifier. The actual number of flux lines is of little importance to the user. Doubling the width of the recorded track on the tape doubles the number of flux lines passing the playback head gap during a given linear tape movement, which in turn doubles the output voltage from the head.

Secondly, the distortion of the playback signal increases. It does, but that level is not the same for all machines. For most amateur recording purposes, the lower figure is probably more realistic, especially if the program has already been recorded or broadcast, in which case its peaks have already been limited. The headroom of this hypothetical recorder, at low and middle frequencies, is 5 dB.

But what about the high frequencies, which are boosted during recording? If all recorders used this level as a 0-dB reference, it would be easy to compare their midrange headroom. The opposite effect occurs when the 0-dB point is set at a lower flux level, as in the Pioneer Model CT- F reviewed this month. When the total frequency-response characteristics of the machine are studied, it can be seen that Pioneer has not attempted to extend the high-frequency response beyond the 13,to,Hz range.

Instead, the recording equalization and bias have been matched to the head characteristics to give a rather good high-frequency headroom characteristic so that a strong response is maintained to 10, Hz or beyond, even at 0 dB. This will reveal, in a rough way, how high the average recording levels can be set to realize the full dynamic range of the machine. The transport controls are short levers that extend horizontally from the front panel below the cassette well. A separate pause switch is located to the right of the control levers.

The styling of the cassette deck matches other Pioneer components. The control panel and controls are satin- finished aluminum, and the wooden case is finished in walnut-grain vinyl. General Description. The cassette is installed vertically through a large opening in the front panel and can be covered by a swing-down clear-plastic window. Unlike other cassette decks, this one does not have an eject lever. Instead, with the tape stopped even in the pause mode the cassette is simply pulled off the drive hubs and removed by hand.

This is just about the simplest and easiest withdrawal system we have seen. It leaves the cassette completely visible while it is in the machine. For recording on ferrichrome tapes, the std bias and cro 2 eq settings are used; cro 2 eq should be used for their playback. A chart in the instruction manual suggests switch settings for most popular tapes.

Below the pushbutton switches are concentric input level controls for the two channels and another concentric pair of output playback level controls. At the right side of the panel are two W 6. At the lower left of the panel is the pushbutton power switch. On the rear panel of the deck are the input and output phono jacks, a DIN socket, and a switch that connects the recording inputs to either the phono jacks or the DIN socket.

There is also a single un- switched ac outlet on the rear panel. Laboratory Measurements. Most of the variation in both cases took place below Hz. The other tapes were generally similar to the TDK Audua in their response, with the output sloping off gently above 10, Hz and more rapidly above 13, Hz. For a recording level of 0 dB, an input of 57 mV was required at the line inputs and 0. The mic circuit overloaded at a fairly safe mV, which could have been increased to more than mV with the DIN switch.

The maximum output level from a 0-dB recording was between 0. With the output control set for a 0-dB meter deflection, the output was 0. The meter ballistics were slightly underdamped, giving a 2-dB overshoot with 0. The wow was 0. In the fast-forward and rewind modes, a C cassette was moved from end to end in 59 seconds.

User Comment. We appreciated not having the cassette pop out noisily as it does on some tape decks, and its insertion and removal are as simple as' reaching into the roomy compartment and grasping the sides of the cassette. Another nicety, which we have not seen on many recorders, is the access hole in the cassette head cover for azimuth alignment. Their absence will rarely be noticed, whereas distortion, noise, and high-frequency tape saturation will.

This deck has above-average performance in each of these respects. This true bookshelf-size two-way system has an 8" The AR s nominal system impedance is 8 ohms, and efficiency is similar to that of many small acoustic suspension systems. AR rates the speaker system to deliver an dB sound pressure level SPL at a distance of 1 meter with 1 watt of drive power.

Small, compact and inexpensive, it frees other scopes for more effective use. A stable power supply is essential to precise testing of the transceivers. Less than 0. Adjustable to any output from 11 to 15 VDC. Suppressed zero scale for greater accuracy.

Overload protected. You can tune oscillators precisely, conduct audio frequency analysis tests. Six digit display is updated five times per second. Accuracy guaranteed to 40MHz; 60MHz typical. Ultra-stable crystal-controlled, phase- locked-loop frequency generation. Has 5 ppm accuracy. Output attenuator and vernier provide calibrated outputs from , mV to 0. Includes EIA standard noise test signal generator to check receiver noise suppression.

Internal , and Hz modulating frequencies—can also be externally modulated. Internal protection against 5W RF input. We could find no trace of the anomaly that sometimes occurs in the tone-burst response at the crossover point. The tone bursts were reproduced very well at all frequencies. The front is finished to match the rest of the cabinet, and the drivers are covered by a removable acoustically transparent foam plastic grille.

There was a 3. Our measurements were made with the tweeter switch set to normal. Driving the speaker with the equivalent of 1 watt into an 8-ohm load 2. The system impedance was about 6 ohms at its minimum points of and Hz, but it was typically 6 to 8 ohms over much of the audio range. It rose to a peak of 20 ohms at 38 Hz well below the rated system resonance of 55 Hz and climbed smoothly beyond Hz to 20 ohms at 20, Hz.

It is in this frequency range that the speaker system was notably free of the artificial emphasis that is all too common with other systems. This was not our experience with the Model AR; it can deliver a room-filling, true bass when required. This is not a speaker system that can be played loud enough to rattle the walls, unless you are willing to accept appreciable distortion levels. Comparing it to its predecessors should convince anyone that there has been substantial progress in speaker system performance, much of which is embodied in this diminutive system.

It has all the power you need, and more, to make your application ideas come alive. With its open-chassis engineering you can expand your system by adding peripherals and interfaces. The slots and 28 amp power supply mean that you can plug-in todays, plus tomorrows modules. We are committed to leadership in this expanding, technology. Technically knowledgeable? And at a price you would normally pay for a home applications and uses at your fingertips.

Here, the focus is on the newest type of electronic multimeter—the digital multimeter, or DMM. Technical Details. Ac accuracy. Outside the specified frequency range, the accuracy drops off rapidly. In addition, distorted sine waves produce serious accuracy errors. Resistance power. You will pay good money for a DMM, so you will want to use it as long as possible. Unless your meter is protected on all ranges and functions, it will likely be damaged heyond repair.

The initial digit is actually a half digit that is either blanked or displayed as a 1 and only a 1. If a 3-digit instrument with overranging is used to measure a potential that changes from The best antenna going And coming. Shakespeare comes on strong for the new 40 channel era. With high performance CS antennas that turn on the power on all 23 or 40 channel CB transceivers. Totally impervious to the environment. And pre-tuned to an SWR of 1. To assure maximum range and peak performance everytime you key the mike.

And take the Shakespeare performance route home. Complete with cables and connectors. Coming on strong for the Knights of the Read. Hence, if a 4! And if a 4! A 4-digit meter with a mV lowest range and the capability of displaying There are many digital multimeters from which the service technician and hobbyist can choose. A list of manufacturers of such instruments is given in the table. Most instruments for servicing and hobby use are in the low- and moderate-price ranges.

They offer a wide variety of ranges, functions, and features that can be matched to just about any test and measurement job you might have. Overrange indication. Polarity display. Find out more about the ultimate base and the complete line of Tram mobile CB radios. Send for a free brochure or see your local CB dealer. Box , Winnisquam, NH Altair plug-in boards, peripherals, software and manuals are also available. Check the list below for the MITS dealer in your area.

The greater the magnitude of the analog parameter or the longer a gate is held open , the greater the number of pulses delivered to the counting circuits. The output of the comparator is fed to a three-input gate, along with the pulses from a stable oscillator of known frequency and a control signal that can be either high or low. When both the comparator and control signals are high, the oscillator pulses can pass through the gate and on to the counter circuit.

Another signal then causes the display to indicate the state of the counter. After a predetermined interval, the special control signal resets the gate, discharges the capacitor, and prepares for the start of a new cycle. Noise on the input signal can produce faulty indications in this system. Better digital multimeters use dual-slope conversion circuit B.

At this time, the counter generates an "overrange" signal. Note that the time from T1 to T2 completely fills the counters once. This time is not fixed because the charging rate is determined by the level of the unknown voltage. A high voltage reduces the Tl-to- T2 period, while a low voltage increases it. At time T2, the reference voltage starts the integrator in the opposite direction and linearly discharges the capacitor. The linear discharge continues, as does the count gate held open by the high level of the comparator's output , until the decreasing ramp passes through zero time T3 , forcing the comparator to change output state and shut down the gate to stop the counter.

When the gate shuts down, the counters display a count that is directly proportional to the ratio of the unknown voltage to the reference voltage. Peak, p-p Peak, p-p Avg. L Avg. Voltage readings S 10 xV- 0. And positioning of the decimal point in the display is also automatic whenever the range switch is operated.

If a 3-digit DMM is set to the 0. Choosing a DMM. Audubon Rd. Fairview Rd. Caldwell, NJ Dynascan Corp. Belle Plaine Ave. Price St. On the other hand, if you intend to use your DMM almost exclusively in the field, battery power is a must. The number of digits in the display will influence the type or model instrument you choose. In most cases, every added digit boosts the cost of the DMM. Of course, if you are working with high-level technology, do not look for an instrument with less than digits in the display.

The type of display you choose may also be important. For most indoor work, the LED display is convenient. For outside work, where the ambient light is very bright, a LED display is likely to wash out and become unreadable unless a light hood is used. Here, the LCD offers a high degree of legibility, since contrast increases with increasing light levels. The disadvantage of the LCD is that it is very difficult to read when the light level is relatively low.

Also keep in mind that there is quite a difference between input resistance and input impedance. Depending on the type of work you will be doing, even a basic DMM may not be what you need. Obviously, if you plan to use the DMM primarily for field service, the smaller the better. Actually, which digital multimeter you buy depends on the applications for which it is intended and how much money you have to spend.

You would not, for example, pay the premium price demanded for a 0. Van Nuys. Solderless strips, backing board and binding posts. Everything you need to build and test your own circuit. Make your changes immediately. Keep full leads on your components.

Avoid the heat damage possible with repeated soldering and desoldering. A P made the first modern solderless breadboard, and we still make. Pari No. ACE Model No. Our distributor list is growing daily. For the name of the distributor nearest you call Toll-Free All are most useful—up to a point.

In such cases, how does one examine a number of operating interdependent circuit lines for debugging purposes? This is called a data- domain logic analyzer. Note that the status of the logic is of interest only at a specified instant in time related to the clock. This brings up another problem—clock speed. A switch also allows the observation of the 15 digital words that follow the trigger word if the problem is thought to lie in that direction.

Because a computer consists of a number of interlocking digital circuits, each carefully timed from a common clock signal, the misplacement of one bit among thousands can cause a great deal of trouble. Programs that can be properly written will not run because of an erroneous bit being generated within the system.

True, you can see a small group of bits at any given time. The scope can display a signal only after it has been triggered. When the trigger word keyed in via control-panel switches appears, the Analyzer will automatically trigger, collect, store, and display 16 sequential 8-bit words in either octal or hex format, as shown in Fig. Another front-pane! The specifications for the logic analyzer are shown in the box.

Circuit Operation. Trigger word is intensified at top of hex display A with the 15 following data words. In octal display B , trigger word is at bottom with the 15 data words leading up to it erring to the block diagram of Fig. The complete schematic diagram is shown in sections in Figs. The inputs to the system are the 8-bit signals bit 0 through bit 7 , the system clock, and the common or ground bus of the digital circuit under test.

The data and clock inputs are buffered by IC1 and IC2. It stores sequential data words from the digital system under test. This circuit uses SI through S8 to set up the desired trigger word, with the switches set to either 1,0, or X as required. In the neg time position of S11, the memory stores data continuously until the trigger word occurs.

When this happens, data collection is halted, leaving the memory with the 15 data words leading up to the trigger, plus the trigger word itself. At the end of this period, the blanking signal is removed and a bit- by-bit scan of the memory contents is initiated. Thus, even though the data memory provides a full 8-bit wide data word to the input of the multiplexer, only one bit at a time is sent to the character generator made up of half of IC20 , and Q3.

Block diagram of analyzer shows basic signal routing. For separate parts: drilled double-sided printed circuit board, No. LA, One Park Ave. If S12 is set to the single mode, the display control logic prevents the data memory from collecting new input data so that the same information is written on the CRT screen.

Input buffers , trigger detector, memory, and data multiplexer 43 trude through its hole on the top of the case, mount LED1. This completes the assembly of the board. The top of the case should be punched to accept the 13 switches and the LED indicator. Make sure that all switches can be moved into all their positions. Bring the three-wire ac line cord into the case through a strain-relief. The input probe cable is made up of a 3' about 1-m length of conductor, flat-ribbon cable. The last conductor in the cable is coded black for ground.

Connect,the ribbon cable to the pin DIP plug with the black cable ground mating with pin The other conduc- Fig. Vertical control and blanking. Both sides of the pc board contain components. Then mount all resistors, capacitors, and diodes, making sure that polarity- sensitive devices are correctly oriented.

Mount voltage regulator IC25 in place, using silicone grease, or a thermally conductive gasket between its case and the board. A suitable heat sink should be used if the board is to be mounted inside a case. The case provided with the kit comes with a heat sink. The IC side of the board should look like the assembled board shown in Fig.

Turn the board over to the switch side and mount the 13 control switches. Horizontal logic and mode control logic. At the free end of the ribbon cable, separate the 10 leads at least 4" This type of connector will mate with conventional 1C clips and wrapped-wire pins. If desired, ball clips or EZ hooks can be substituted. Plug the line cord into an ac outlet and turn on the power. Verify the output of the 5-volt power supply at TP1 using a voltmeter.

When the LED goes off, the blanking signal will appear at board pad W7. Using the oscilloscope, measure the peak amplitude of the blanking pulse. Do not exceed the manufacturer-specified blanking requirements for your scope. Set the scope vertical attenuator to approximately 0. When the clock polarity switch S10 is flipped, a truth table should appear on the CRT. Adjust the focus and intensity controls to obtain a clear well-defined display.

The remaining four probes should remain unconnected. Set the first four trigger switches SI through S4 to and the last four to X. The selected trigger word should appear intensified at the bottom of the table, with the 15 prior binary address words listed in sequence above it. Single Mode: Continuous display of one 1 6-word truth-table until reset button is activated.

Repeat Mode: Display of sequential word truth tables. Input Probes: Constructed of color-coded flat-ribbon cable terminated in universal pin connectors. Completed board and connector panel ready for assembly. The probes can be moved to other portions of the circuit, such as the horizontal counter, display-control logic, and the data-word logic.

In fact, the right side of the hex portion of the display in Fig. The analyzer shows its flexibility when used to check a computer or program. The octal portion of Fig. The trigger word 00 is the branch address and is intensified at the bottom of the display. In Closing. The Logic Analyzer we have described can be used for all types of testing and troubleshooting of digital circuits and systems. This can be done without breaking the conductor. The circuit for the current tester is shown in Fig.

Operation is based on the fact that at room temperatures, all conductors have Fig. Op amp in A measures slight voltage differential between two probes, amplifies it, and drives dc voltmeter. Addition of another op amp in B permits driving ammeter. Once installed.. It works without Friction or wear. Smoother Running Faster Acceleration!

Send Check or M. Phototransistor and op amp unite to form light-sensitive relay driver that can be activated by a flashlight across the room. Typically, such voltage drops are in the microvolt range; but with a voltage amplifier having a gain of or more, the minute voltage can be brought up to a reasonably measurable value. The basic circuit shown in Fig. This circuit takes advantage of the high common-mode rejection ratio CMRR of the op amp to reject any noise pickup voltages that are common to both input terminals.

Figure IB uses a dual op amp package to drive a p. A meter that is used as the readout. Operation of the circuit is otherwise the same as that of Fig. Where currents greater than approximately 1. Photo Switch.

The circuit shown in Fig. A Sprague AA05 requires about 6 mA at 3 volts, for example. If any other type of relay is to be used, keep in mind that the op amp can deliver only about 10 mA at best, so if higher currents are required, a transistor relay driver must be used. A major one is poor dial calibration, which makes monitoring and QSL procedures difficult. Fortunately, external circuitry can compensate for this limitation.

The 1-MHz output of the second flip-flop is further divided by two dual decade counters IC3 and IC4 to yield a Hz reference signal. For a ms counting interval, a Hz gating signal is required. This is performed by IC6, a JK flip-flop. The Hz square About the Circuit.

The schematic diagram of the digital frequency readout is shown in Fig. The output of Q1, developed across R3 , drives emitter follower Q2, an npn bipolar transistor. Schematic diagram. For simplicity, only one decade of display is shovm. Schematic diagram of the power supply.

Even though the counters resolve the local oscillator frequency to the nearest 0. The use of the undisplayed 0. However, a hand-picked which can function up to 30 MHz can be used in place of the costlier The counters are loaded with this number at the reception of the preset pulse prior to the initiation of each counting interval. The latch pulse is generated by ICS. This is so because IC7 divides the input signal from IC5 to produce a latch pulse with a frequency of 10 Hz.

Rather, the Hz latch rate permits the display to track each frequency change with legible readout values. Photo of prototype. F, disc ceramic capacitor C3. F disc ceramic capacitor C8—p. F, volt electolytic capacitor Cl 1—6. Let's face it, learning valuable new skills isn't something you just breeze through. Especially in a modem technological field like electronics troubleshooting. You've got to really want success if you're going to build your skills properly. But, oh boy, the rewards when you do!

What about you? How much do you want the thrill of success Enough to roll up your sleeves and work for it? Why it pays to build troubleshooting skills. Suppose the automated production controls on an assembly line break down. Or take a TV station. Breakdowns are costly in broadcasting where time is money.

Before they change channels, the station needs to get back on the air again —with the help of a skilled troubleshooter. No question about it. Building new skills in electronics troubleshooting is an investment in your future. Why you should get CEE to help you do it. Troubleshooting starts with ideas Step by step at home, you explore each principle —each theory —until you understand it thoroughly and completely. Then you start to use it.

How CEE helps you turn ideas into reality. You actually perform over experiments to help you grasp the basics. Plus you use a 3-in-1 Precision Multimeter to get your first taste of the testing, checking, analyzing steps you take in troubleshooting!

Your second practical, skill-building step begins when you get your Zenith inch diagonal, solid-state color TV — featuring nine removable modules! Using the TV, you learn to trace signal flow Finally, step three rounds out your experience as you work with a completely solid-state color bar generator—actually a TV signal transmitter that produces ten different display patterns on your TV screen!

You study a gated color bar rainbow You explore digital logic circuits For some troubleshooting jobs, you must have your FCC License. For others, employers often consider it a mark in your favor. Almost 4 out of 5 CIE graduates who take the exam get their Licenses. Free catalog! Mail the card. If you prefer to write, mention the name of this magazine. Mail the card or coupon PE 55 51 IC20 Fig. Parts placement guides for main top , display center , and counter bottom pc boards.

Two dc outputs are provided. The bridge rectifier D3 through D6 delivers pulsating dc to C8 which acts as a filter. The three components form a full-wave rectifier, but its output is unfiltered and unregulated. The unfiltered, pulsating dc has a ripple frequency of Hz, which is great enough to prevent display flicker and results in a display brightness comparable to that obtained with a steady dc source.

The project should be assembled using printed circuit boards and 1C sockets or Molex Soldercons. The author used three pc boards in his prototype Fig. The boards can be interconnected with short lengths of No. Suitable etching and drilling guides are shown in Figs. Use the minimum amount of heat necessary for good solder connections. First, a metal case must be used—but it must also be perforated or vented to allow heat to dissipate. Checkout and Use. The connection should be made with small- diameter coaxial cable such as RGU.

You might find it desirable to mount an RCA phono jack on the back of receiver and bring the coax from the local oscillator output to this point. The clip would then be attached to the proper tie point within the receiver. The counters will be programmed with DIP switches seven spst switches mounted in a DIP or with wire jumpers on the counter board. If you are using DIP switches, make sure that all switches are in the off position.

If wire jumpers are to be used, do not install any of them yet. Turn the power switch SI on. The display should read 0. Insert No. Typical local oscillator circuit nent placement guide. Or, if DIP switches are used, close the switches at these positions. You can best do this by turning on the bfo—if your receiver has one— and zero beating the carrier. Subtract the number display from For example, if the display reads 5. You will obtain a remainder of The display should now read 5.

Programming can be verified by tuning in an AM broadcast station of known frequency for maximum signal strength. Some multiple conversion receivers, such as the Heath GR, will require different programming for different bands. This will greatly speed programming. In many modern projects— particularly those involving computers— the load on the power supply can cost a great deal more than the supply itself. Note the downward slope of the short-circuit current, l sc , for the fold- back characteristic as opposed to the zero slope of the line for conventional current limiting.

The functional diagram of the is shown in Fig. Pin designations on the diagram are for the dual in-line DIP configuration of this 1C.

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It follows that the voltage drop across D2 will be approximately equal to that across R3 which sets the current through Q3. As a first approximation the current is 0. A low current is desirable because an ideal op-amp has infinite input impedance and no current flows through the inputs. A 10 turn, 10 k resistor is used instead of a fixed value for R3 in order to trim the op-amp in the circuit.

This time the current source will be on the order of 1. Frequency Compensating Capacitor: There is capacitance in any circuit especially this one on a breadboard and this can cause among other things oscillations. Capacitor C1 allows the designer to select the critical frequency and thus control the frequency response of the op-amp.

It also reduces oscillation. Given that my op-amp is on a breadboard this calculation is probably way off. Capacitor C1 also sets the slew rate. When there is a voltage step between the inverting and non-inverting inputs it drives one transistor into saturation and the other into cutoff. Capacitor C1 then begins charging or discharging. The voltage therefore does not change ideally but instead increases or decreases exponentially.

The slew rate is defined as the maximum rate of output voltage change and is the fastest response the op-amp is capable of. If the voltage swing the op-amp is trying to achieve for a sine wave is too great at a given frequency then distortion occurs and the slew rate may be such that the peak voltage is not obtained.

The maximum frequency the op-amp can operate without slew-rate distortion at a given peak voltage is called the power bandwidth. Higher power bandwidth is achieved at lower frequencies. Amplification: Q4 and Q5 act as an amplification stage with very high gain.

Diodes D5 and D6 bias the class B push-pull amplifier which follows. Non-inverting Amplifier: R7 and R8 are external to the op-amp and are used to set gain for a non-inverting amplifier with negative feedback. The Setup and Bread Board. The circuit was built on a breadboard and shown below. The oscilloscope and several multimeters are also used to analyze circuit behavior.

Here is a closeup of the breadboard. The measured beta of the NPN transistors was The PNP transistors beta measured DC Performance. The gain was set with resistors R7 and R8 to be approximately 4. This is about as close as the op-amp can get to the rails. In the SPICE model below the voltages at nodes is in green surrounded by red ovals and the actual measured voltages are in black in a larger font. For example, the model was set to give a positive rail of 10V and the measured voltage was 9.

I made an error or two and then had to wiggle wires to get it to work due to a bad breadboard connection but then it became quite stable and as can be seen the results for DC amplification are quite close to the model. The resistance of R3 the potentiometer was adjusted to minimize the voltage difference n the inputs which is why it is at 2. The internal measurements match the model well and gain is right on with reasonable voltage offset after adjustment.

I was quite pleased. AC Performance. The gain was increased to This analysis indicated that the bandwidth of the op-amp is around 1 MHz under the test conditions. As shall be seen the performance is not so good on the breadboard. All that stray capacitance and who knows what. In the following video the behavior near the rails, influence of capacitor C1, slew rate, and bandwidth are demonstrated. You don't have permission to edit metadata of this video.

In this video the input signal is increased until the output clips as it swings near the rails. Here the slew rate of the discrete component op-amp is examined. Removing C1 from the circuit does not produce noticeable effect. My guess is this is because the breadboard circuit already contains so much capacitance. This has been a fun project and I learned a lot from it.

There was discrepancy in AC behavior with slew rate and higher frequency but that is to be expected on the breadboard. I considered soldering something up on perf board but in the end decided not to. A poorly performing component can sometimes be more instructive than a good performing one and besides if a good performing op-amp is desired then buy one of the many ICs available.

I have a better idea now about how op-amps work and what drives some of the non-ideal behavior but am far from an expert. Please feel free to correct my interpretations or observations in the comments. I will leave the breadboard set up for a few more days if anyone is interested in another measurement or observation.

I've made one. Not sure why, but I have. Here it is sitting on my battered copy of Walter Jung's cookbook:. Yes, it's the base-collector capacitance of that input transistor. The model from the library had 3. The simuation gives something similar, so it's down to intrinsic properties of the parts and not parasitics.

I'm interested! That is a very nice explanation and work. It also fosters admiration for the engineers who did the original work in this area and more appreciation for what we can buy in an IC today. I want to build another more permanent version if for no other reason to display it and have people ask "what is that?

I am in the midst of moving house and all my electronic equipment and tools have been packed. Unfortunately I won't see them again for at least another 3 weeks so everything is on hold for the moment. I mentioned above trying a mirror for the load.

I've now tried it on the real circuit with this result. It hasn't completely fixed the input voltage offset, but you can see it's much closer than the 50mV. But it's more on edge. When I first power it up, the ringing extends all the way. Peribere, Barry W. Perry, Mark C. Rohr, Janice J. Teal, Michael J. Willis, Peter J. Ganz and Seth A. Mrozek, will be participants in the solicitation of proxies from stockholders in respect of the Annual Meeting of Stockholders.

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How to use an opamp with a single supply

To prevent impedance problems, unity-gain op amp buffers can be used with of electronic circuit-design aids from sockets and breadboards to com¬ plete. Before you invest in your next project, invest in a CSC breadboard. Personal experience with high-gain op amps in a preamp circuit was that. Designed a direct coupled two-stage CMOS operational amplifier using a P-MOS Constructed the circuit using breadboard, while using functions generators.