It is impossible to erase the place for our ancestors. We just bury them an- risk of dangling and unclaimed gifts, unknowing- ywhere. In my family we used to say the dead ly accepted gifts, and mysterious remainders of went to a certain lake.
But now I see that some debt that, being beyond calculation, might be people have a place where they keep their an- neither repaid nor repayable. Gifts offered to the cestors. For instance, Buddhists keep the ashes dead, therefore, might take on some of the ex- in a temple. That's why I have been keeping economy. The exchange quickly falls into dark- two rit [practices, rites], rit Kmhmu and Bud- ness, unfolding in a time out of time, exaggerat- dhism.
Phanha's debt to his ances- ing the quality of incommensurability that is al- tors would have been paid by dressing and act- ready inherent to the gift Comay , Such practices have infinite distance, signifying an immeasurable been replaced in his community by the offertory debt to the dead that can only accumulate with made to a Catholic parish in the name of the time. Such spirit economies seem to mark a dead.
Phanha by the war operations cumbered by a debt to the dead, and to other in which he spent his early adult life. No one in his local community today chants the soul of the deceased along such a route. Phanha therefore contemplates a re- negotiation with his ancestors, mediated by a Lao wat, during which he will redirect them to the offerings he will make in a U. In this way he hopes to continue to pay his debt to the dead. Derrida has explored that inherent paradox of the gift, that in the very instant it is recognized as a gift, it is no longer a gift as such, but rather 18 Mary Steedly found that a recent addition to the spirit world in Indonesia were those spirits whose Christian kin no longer provided for them , Being and Time.
New sumption. New York: Zone. York: State University of New York. Chakrabarty, D. Minority Histories, Lindell, K. Swahn and D. Subaltern Pasts. Teller's Tales. London: Curzon. Comay, R. The Gift: The Form and Heidegger. In: A. Stoekl ed. On Bataille. Translated by W. New 66— York: W. Derrida, J. Given Time. The feit Money. Translated by Peggy Kamuf. The Gift of Death. Translated by David Wills. Chicago: University of Chi- Steedly, M. Hanging without a Rope: cago Press.
Narrative Experience in Colonial and Postcolonial Karoland. Princeton: Graeber, D. Debt: The First Years. Princeton University. Brooklyn, New York: Melville House. The hon is conceptualised as a on the role of the Lanten ritual experts. Disruptions to the relation- References ship with those who give life can cause the Estevez, Joseba.
Healing and cursing withdrawal of their gift, which will cause disease among the Lanten Yao Mun of Laos, in and, if not properly treated, death. Sprenger Eds. This ritual expert will try to identify the deity, group of deities, or the ancestors responsible for the withdrawal of the gift of life. When ai kwa is successful, the kwa mun can recommend a suitable ceremony that will re-establish the balance of the socio- cosmological relationships of the patient as a whole, which also includes all the family mem- bers, animals and crops of his or her house- hold.
The ritual experts and the cha kwan must be unmarried Lanten girls. Dur- apprentices work together on the making of the ing the ceremony, all the participants will drink a ritual decoration. Centre of the picture: A fruit special blend of tea collected by the ritual ex- tree made of paper that will feed the visiting perts in the forest.
They may also make its fruits delicious in the Otherworld. If this is the case, they have to receive the proper training. The Lanten manuscripts play a fundamental role in the transmission of the ritual knowledge and in building a hierarchy among the ritual experts. In Nam Lue Village, there was only one copy of this particular manuscript and its owner had to be invited to lead the ceremony so his Once the ritual decoration and the altars are manuscript could be available for the ceremony.
As a token of respect, they of- after the apprentices have copied the text, fer them two glasses of rice whisky. Note the white cloth on the Lanten deities and the ancestors of the partici- ceiling. Rolls of cotton cloth made by the Lanten pants. In the centre, traditional Lanten food is ready to be consumed by the male participants. A view of the altar of the masters. On the left side of the picture are the bamboo sticks that will be used to call the spirit-horses.
On the right of the picture, a ritual expert writes down the names of all the invited deities and ancestors. In the centre, the ritual expert who opened the ceremony follows the required procedures. The apprentices start calling their spirit-horses; they will hit the ground with bamboo sticks for hours. Although the apprentice's ancestors usually send these horses, however, other dei- ties can also provide them.
Two to four boys will get their spirit-horse each day. In the picture, the ritual boy collapse. This ceremony had not taken place in Nam Lue for thirty years and at- tracted many visitors. The attending ritual experts lead the boy to the altar of the masters where his feet will be in contact with the wall, i. It tutes a bridge to the deities and the ancestors. Although horses were common in the caravans that crossed the Southwest Silk Road route that connected Yunnan China with Laos, Thailand, and Cambodia, there have not been horses or mules in Northern Laos for dec- ades.
On the left, a ritual expert gives the boy Each apprentice offers two small pigs to his war-horse garments such as a saddle, stirrups, ancestors after receiving his spirit-horse. His flanges, and horseshoes. In this realm, the offerings are added to those required to initiate bronze stamp and the bamboo papers create the ceremony. The assistants will consume all and represent all these objects, which are made the sacrifices.
The apprentices tual assistants. A boy receives a new ritual identity. It entails a ritual name and two spiritual guides that are selected by means of a raffle. One of the small altar. If one of the ritual experts falls out of the hand, another in the right hand. Sheets of paper on the ground create a path — an asterism — that the apprentices must follow.
A master teaches the basic healing texts. For Although diagrams representing asterisms such many of the apprentices in this ceremony, this as the Big Dipper appear in many Lanten was their first contact with the Lanten written manuscripts and even in one of the bronze language. The Lanten ordina- Moon Lanten: laa are a couple and the stars tion Lanten: jai sai only provides the accredita- Lanten: ting dao are their children. The stars tions and the socio-cosmological relationships are divided into those that are close to the with the masters, ancestors, and deities.
It also offers a great enter- and a straw crossing its rim. If one or more tainment and attracts many viewers as all the grains of rice remain on the straw when a par- old ritual experts show their skills. The major ticular deity is questioned, the event is taken as Lanten ceremonies such as learning shamanis- a token of accountability.
The spirit-horse can feed on the cursing that has triggered the disease, and temporarily neutralises it until the proper cere- mony that counteracts the cursing can take place. Lanten healing is combined with visits to the hospital and the use of modern medicine. However, for most of the Lanten, modern doc- tors and drugs can only treat the symptoms and not the origin of the disease, so only by re- estabilising the appropriate socio-cosmological relationships with the deities and the ancestors can a person fully recover.
Ngo Max Planck Institute for the Study household. For this reason, it is also the time of Religious and Ethnic Diversity, Goettingen when the unity of the family and the household is affirmed and ritually sanctioned. Yet the performance of this all- helped Mr. Gi prepare the last ritual of the important ritual had caused dissension and dis- Hmong traditional New Year. He was grateful cord in the Gi family. Gi had chosen to return to his house. A bunch of freshly plucked chicken ancestral worship, while Mrs.
Gi and all the feathers and a ceremonial paper in his left children preferred to remain members of the hand, Mr. Gi slowly hoisted himself up onto a Church. The divergent ways Mr. Gi and his fam- wobbly little wooden chair. Keeping the chair ily chose to mark New Year — he by performing steady with one hand, I held out with the other a ancient rituals, his wife and children by listening little bowl, half full of glue made of cooked sticky to a religious program broadcast from America rice flour.
Dipping his thumb in the glue and — encapsulate some of the tensions between smearing it on the paper, Mr. Gi carefully at- old and new caused by the introduction of tached the ceremonial paper onto the wooden evangelical Protestantism among the Hmong of wall right above the outside of the main door, Vietnam since the s. About one third of the and then the chicken feather on top of it. The more than one million Hmong living in Vietnam door was significantly taller than in most Hmong have converted to Protestantism.
The rest in- houses, so decorating its lintel was a rather clude some who have steadfastly resisted the arduous job; but finally, it was done. Still stand- appeal of Protestantism or, as in the case of Mr. Gi began to recite an in- Gi, have chosen to return to their ancestral cantation. The relatively short chant sounded faith. While Mr. Gi clings to old religious beliefs melancholic.
The night grew gloomier. Gi and his family are Evangelical radio broadcast. Protestantism and the night. Like the Chinese or Vietnamese, most Hmong in Vietnam University of Washington Hmong avoid conflicts at this time in the hope of Press addresses the interplay between ushering in a harmonious year. For them, the the global reach of Christianity and the ways in New Year is the most important time of the which it is articulated in the Vietnamese Hmong year, a vital moment in which ties with ances- society.
It approaches the emergence of Hmong tors are renewed. The ancestral and domestic Protestantism from various perspectives, those spirits of the family are honored through the of the Hmong converts and non-converts as renovation of altars in and around the house, well as those of the deconverted, of the Viet- and food is offered by the head of the family. One of the classic narratives of Christian by the New Way, including the Vietnamese conversion is modelled on that of Saint Paul: a state authorities.
In fact, however, conversion is a complex social phenomenon that takes place in specific political circumstances. Conversion to Christianity in the Roman Empire is different from conversion from Catholicism to Protestant- ism in early modern Europe and from conver- sion under colonial or postcolonial conditions. In all these cases the relation to state power is crucial.
This is immediately clear in the fact that the Hmong convert en masse, although not in their entirety. To explore the different social and individual aspects of what conversion means for the Hmong, this book pays close attention to the way in which Hmong people—converts and non-converts—make sense of their community, locality, and identity in space and time, espe- cially in the face of the material and moral chal- lenges that globalization presents to them.
I also address their longing to escape conditions of marginality — geographic, socio-economic, and political — and their aspiration to modernity, however de- fined over the course of the twentieth century, by different actors: the Vietnamese state, with its sudden shifts in policy, or the US-based Hmong diaspora which supplies both missionar- ies and audio-visual illustrations of global mo- dernity.
The New Way, as converts often refer to evangelical Protestantism, reshapes crucial dimensions of Hmong lives; it even affects those who refuse to convert, or who, having converted, decide to return to their old beliefs and practices. At present, death ritual is more central than ever. Like Before , death ritual was at the center of social life in many highland Tibeto-Burman- many places in rural China, J z has lost much of its youthful population to migration.
Most speaking communities in Southwest China. In young women and many young men have the township of J z in north-central Yunnan Province, kinship and social relations among moved to the cities to find work that does not involve farming. The elderly stay to die; older the living were given material form in ritualized migrants return home to die; younger migrants actions for the dead. The major funeral rituals performed for every person who died in this return to participate in rituals for dead parents and grandparents.
People in J z are using practices dawn two or three days after death, after which of death to experiment with new ways of think- the corpse was buried. During the tenth lunar ize characteristics associated with modernity. And two or three generations after vived. Especially when performed for an ch.
In the s, only a few ritualists, all elderly person who had died well, these events men, could perform this chant. These ritualists all involved people from nearly every household were very busy during the tenth lunar month, in the community. This small group of While the Communist Party did not ini- men suffered enormously between and tially forbid large-scale gatherings for rituals when it began to conduct land reform in Yun- Sleeping in the Forest hard labor.
The the great chants, also persecuted them, making other major death rituals continued, diminishing in scope, until the Great Leap Forward began in them ill because they were no longer allowed to perform. By the s, all in J z who had For several years after the Great Leap once memorized the great chants were dead or Famine , the dead were buried without ceremony. Soon afterwards, people very ill.
People who wanted to hold Tenth- Month Sacrifice for their parents or Sleeping in began to hold small, quiet Emerging from the the Forest for their great grandparents could not House, Emerging from the Courtyard, and Dawn-to-Dusk Sacrifice vigils, slaughtering find anyone to preside and sing. Li Biyong had learned the great song, but the transcription does not record the- chants as an apprentice ritualist as a youth.
During the late s and early s, he per- formed nearly every day during the tenth lunar The song tells of the origins of the ancestral month. In return for a payment that now seems leaves see Figure. A man rides them to be recorded. Li Biyong died in of out on his horse, careful not to lend it out to the illness that he believed was inflicted on him others. He ties his horse to a tree by a spring and hangs its saddle on a branch. Seven monkeys The great chants for Tenth-Month Sacrifice and appear in the night.
A monkey drops from the Sleeping in the Forest can be divided into three tree onto the saddle; the saddle drops onto the sets of twelve to twenty-four songs each. The horse; the horse drops into the spring. The man first set of songs brings a world into existence borrows staffs from officials, kings, carpenters, and populates that world with living beings.
The final set of songs discuss the origins and nature of the material bodies for the dead — a very large effi- gy, used during Tenth-Month Sacrifice and then destroyed, and a small ancestral effigy, kept in a house for several generations after a death.
The audio clip pre- sented here is excerpted from the middle of the song, between opening and closing sections that are largely identical across all of the songs of the two chants. While some songs are unique to one version of the chant or the other, this song is present in both.
In the Tenth- Month Sacrifice version, the man seeks the horse along twelve streams. A pine tree and a Now that burial has replaced cremation, the chestnut tree block his way, and he under- smoke of corpses no longer settled on green stands that the pine is his father and the chest- pines, and this material link between the dead nut his mother. This parallels a ceremony in body and the ancestral effigy that replaces it is which an orphaned son, accompanied by his lost.
This uncertainty is monkey drops into saddle, saddle drops onto one of the reasons that funerals are repeated horse, horse drops into the depths of the spring. The songs of the two great chants describe the souls of the dead as monkeys mo , abandoned in the forest before The parallel problem of how living souls might being located and given material bodies. The be reliably and stably matched with living bod- songs portray coffins as strong white horses ies came to dominate political life in J z during m , which carry the dead to their destination.
All of the state key and domesticated encoffined layers. The campaigns of the socialist period insisted that monkey dropping onto the saddle and the sad- identities be fixed and that people be held re- dle onto the horse enacts this layering. Finally, sponsible for their attitudes, affects, words, and the horse drops into the spring, the underworld, histories.
People in rural China were disciplined m. In J z , people cestral effigy. This problem was made more responded by insisting on the difficulty and con- difficult when people in J z , under pressure tingency of the project of matching souls with from the imperial state and local Confucian bodies. They understood the young local activ- elites, replaced cremation with burial in the late ists of the Cultural Revolution to be possessed nineteenth century.
Earlier in the song, a con- by Chairman Mao. They concluded that the ventional passage about gifts ends with a cou- most destructive of these activists were pos- plet unique to this song, which seems to come sessed and killed by a set of ancestral spirits from the time when the dead were cremated at they had insulted. Great Leap Famine and afterwards.
Today, every death is seen as a bad death, unloosing a wild soul that will inevitably find its way into the living bodies of others. These contexts involve living bodies as well as living and dead souls. This suggestion op- poses the modernizing insistence that souls and bodies must be seen as naturally and funda- mentally bound together identities, affects, words, or histories, owned by or embedded in particular bodies.
This opposition is the under- lying theme of the many secret histories of rela- tions between living persons and invisible be- ings that are woven through the encounter of highland communities in Yunnan with seculariz- ing socialism and post-socialism. An ancestral effigy — a pine tw ig father bound to a chestnut tw ig mother lying on a bamboo bed affine and gazing up at a flower of chestnut leaves.
So, In , I was busy undertaking fieldwork in the argument concludes, rather than dying out, Banyuwangi regency, on the eastern tip of Ja- magical beliefs become increasingly relevant as va. I was researching the practice of killing sor- societies undergo transformation. The story I was told about example, that for many in Africa the idea of Sukardi was a case in point.
A woman named witches flying across the globe provides an un- Ainah lent Sukardi a small amount of money as derstanding of the flight of international capital an interest-free loan. Afterwards, Sukardi re- in a global economy. Taussig maintains that sorcerers, were killed by their family, friends, Colombian peasants understand capitalism as and neighbors in This holds that evil, factory work Ong Thus, beliefs and practices and modernity. The rise of this theory provided associated with the supernatural are not rem- a profound new insight into witchcraft and re- nants of traditional thinking, but rather, accord- lated phenomena.
In what follows, I outline the moder- world. I then introduce my field- work village, Tegalgaring, in Indonesia, outlining patterns of sorcery in relation aspects of the Limitations of the Critique economy of that location. And, to the ex- capitalism and modernity is the possibility of tent that the mundane has been affected by escape from this. Specifically, if Banyuwangi and sorcery an altercation arises among friends, family, or Banyuwangi Regency population 1.
Suspicions will be tip of Java. I undertook fieldwork for 12 months aroused such misfortunes occur frequently in the years in an Osing village enough after altercations or even perceived called Tegalgaring village studying what might altercations with the same person. Initially people I kiai might confirm the suspicion. Tegalgaring had a clearly forbids the use of sorcery.
Clear contrasts emerged. We can see accusations of sorcery and subse- Notably, almost everyone I met who initially quent killings closely related to relationships of denied believing in sorcery in fact demonstrated reciprocity in several examples. I spoke once to a sincere belief in the threat of this evil force. He recounted, They put up amulets to repel sorcery, mourned that decades earlier, a local man named Tajeri the death of a relative at the hand of a sorcer- approached his wife, asking for some left-over ers, identified people they were intimate with as cloth, but she refused.
After this, Turok became sorcerers, or even took part in recriminations sick. He eventually cused. These ranged from stoning their roofs, to took part in, and probably led, a violent attack ostracism, to attacking and even killing them. Another contrast emerged in the distance at A local doctor took me to a village near which sorcery works. For instance, my infor- Tegalgaring to visit a terminally ill patient, Susi.
She attributed dreds of miles even on different continents. If a the malady to her sister-in-law, who was a pros- sorcerer wanted to, he or she could reach me in titute. She lived next door. She needed, I was Australia or America; nowhere was safe. Actu- told, a lane for her clients to drive into to access ally, in every case I studied — and I conducted her services.
This was explained to me by local person. Rather than miles, I would say that Dr Nyoman as being due to ascites — the accu- sorcery occurred over several hundred yards at mulation of fluid in the abdomen — usually the most! In the sense that interviewees talked caused by hepatitis.
The dying woman ascribed her swollen stomach to sorcery. Woman w ith enlarged stomach 'caused' by her sister-in-law. Misradin had once been a village official. He had married his cousin; an atypical marriage in Neighbours and clients of the landowner harvest chillies.
But Asemi, he told me, was a The Intimacy of Sorcery sorcerer. Twice he had reported her to the ar- my. Twice, also, local residents had exiled Relatives, friends, and neighbours are closely Asemi from the village. She had used sorcery involved in the everyday give-and-take of life.
The economy has capitalist and reciprocal ele- ments. Spraying people with tied up with a national and international flows in water is a common way to use magic on them the market. But alongside these, ties of give- in Banyuwangi. The labourer on the his stomach swollen. Nevertheless, he maintains, gated to buy their snacks from their aunt. The Asemi, and in fact boasted that he had turned principle of maximizing profit coexists, uncom- her over to the army on two occasions.
Moreo- fortably, with a principle of building and reinforc- ver, he told me, Asemi had been banished from ing emotional and social ties. A case Misradin focused on was her using sorcery against his father. Eventually Asemi became one of the victims of the outbreak of sorcerer killings in The perpetrators were, Misradin explained, local people. Misradin himself was jailed for the mur- der, but denied any involvement. Nevertheless, the fact possesses a larger theoretical signifi- cance.
That the giving and taking of everyday life — ritualized and sacralized in the ritual meal — is the nexus from which sorcery fears and recriminations are born. However, it seems that local ties are just as important, if not more so. Neighbours plucking a chicken for a ritual meal A group of friends—all bachelors—in Tegalgaring. Author centre flanked by religious specialists at a ritual meal This shows in ritual meals.
In- people. Indeed, from a local perspective, capital- This makes sense from the perspective, out- ism and the market offered some reprieve. Al- Africa. Comaroff and J. Comaroff, eds. Chicago: University of Chi- Press. Comparative Geschiere and J. Roitman, transl. Develop- ment and Change Clough and J. Mitchell, eds. A Review Essay. Comparative Studies in Society and History 58 01 The pallid and grayish tonality of People of the Garden City is accentuated by red and shady hues that seep and project themselves over beings impregnated by marks that have suppressed, or paralyzed, their senses — the leaves portrayed by Graves are wandering ones.
Speak in contrast is, in some sense, potentially confusing. From the se- Guyanese or Indians and Africans. Their lead- ries People in the Pavement. Reproduced with 21 ple's Progressive Party but at the end of the authorization of the author. The PPP, in turn, crowded by spectral forces.
Very often, aca- continued to be led by Jagan, who counted on demic writings, art works, literary pieces, official the support of almost the entire Indo-Guyanese discourses, newspaper columns, and daily con- population Consequently, the rise of an inde- versations reverberate presences immersed in pendent nation was, simultaneously, a moment amalgamated temporal chains see Mello of inscription of a shift in the relationship with a; b.
Like the stained fig- of which goes beyond constrained temporal ures of People of the Garden City, many indi- markers. The suffocating setting of the painting viduals carry with them, contemporaneously, contrasts with the landscaping of the capital of marks of violence crystallized in reminiscences and bodies.
During the elec- the form of narratives of losses, absences or toral process of and , several con- resentments, even as an explicative resource frontations between Afro- and Indo-Guyanese for the tensions that emerged in other periods. Trotz In tence this is a divided country. In no The remembrance of these conflicts conjures a serious events were reported. During the practically invisible presence in contemporary election I was in Guyana, and no serious con- Guyana: the British.
M the deliberate actions of the British were in incit- since many people were afraid of disturbances. The strong affirmation they di- It's important to mention this atmosphere be- vided us and then left the country is verbalized cause certain moments, like the election period, with some frequency in Guyana. Indeed, the seemed to be haunted by past events.
According to authors such as and with support from Britain and United States, Brackette Williams it is funda- the PNC won the majority of Parliament seats, mental to understand how the nation-building so Burnham became Prime Minister, keeping was marked by attempts to deal with the coloni- his power, according many authors, through al past and with the new contradictions that massive election frauds until his death in were raised during and in the years following Hintzen ; Trotz; Peake 54; independence.
The relationship between sever- Williams It would be head 73 — and by following opposition to impossible here to cover all the details of the accurate analysis of Williams see Mello a: ; For the purposes of this arti- 24 Italic expressions refer to native expressions. The length of their existences depends, in that manner, on According to the author, due to the process of the performance of rituals that satisfy the wills decolonization of the country and to the authori- of jumbies.
Guyanese people often associate the Ibid. The nature of the first coloniz- fade out. Some In fact, Guyana is a country inhabited by individuals, especially those versed in obeah several jumbies spirits of the dead and all of practices, are able to invoke and control my field research, for ten months between jumbies to harm other people, but no one has , was marked by spiritual agency.
The etc. The pervasiveness of Dutch spirits in the daily Cardoso : In sum, to treat, analytically and lives of my main interlocutors in Guyana — conceptually, spirits as agents in the world. In the place were I conducted my fieldwork, a Kali temple named Blairmont, several individuals, most of them of Indian descent, seek assistance and healing from Hindu deities due to the afflictions caused by Dutch spirits — illness, sickness, tragedies, diseases, bad moods, depression, alcoholism, and so on.
The descriptive and interpretative task could conceive of the very existence of Dutch spirits as native historical views of the disputes be- tween colonial powers over Guyanese territory see Williams for a stimulating analysis , as representations of the colonial past of the country, as images from the past created and recreated through rituals, remembrances, and narratives. Genealogies of Religion: Disci- Mello, M. PhD University Press.
Rio de Cardoso, V. A Guiana e a fantasmagoria da cial 13 2 : Entidades espirituais: materializa- ference. Despres, L. Historicist knowledge and its tionalist politics in British Guiana. Chi- conditions of impossibility. Santo and R. Blanes eds.
The social life of spirits. Chicago Press. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Glasgow, R. Race and politics among Smith, R. Living in the gun mouth: race, Africans and East Indians. The Hague: M. In: Nijhoff. New West Indian Guide, 69 : Hintzen, P. The costs of regime sur- vival.
Racial mobilization, elite domination Trotz, A. Gender, ethnicity and control of the state in Guyana and and place. London: Routledge. Cambridge: Cambridge Univer- sity Press. Williams, B. Stains on my name, war in my veins. Guyana and the politics of cul- Kwon, H. Ghosts of War in Vietnam. Dutchman ghosts and the history mystery: ritual, colonizer, and colonized interpretations of the Berbice slave rebellion. In: Journal of Historical Sociol- ogy, 3 2 : In the dark versity of Cologne doorway he spotted a human shape, motionless for some moments, which then disappeared into When the old Lao lady stole an anxious glance the dark.
My Then she lit some candles and incense sticks at brother protects me. A young the ancestor ghosts that expect to receive food monk dressed in bright orange stood nearby and other offerings, about the famous Prince impassively, smoking a cigarette. To him, born Phetsarat who allegedly could transform into long after the war, old people paying homage to animals and whose images nowadays protect the dead was just an everyday routine fig.
Such spiritual beings in the mountains of northeastern Laos. Johnson, Vue, and Kleinod. He had become a successful busi- Laos, one third of them not detonated; fig. Proudly placing his three expensive stones at them, and sometimes they even mobile phones on the table where we had some picked up the bombies to throw them into cra- sticky rice, spicy papaya salad, and the indis- ters or ravines to detonate. However, he had only recently gone through a Almost thirty years later, my friend assisted a time of crisis: being cheated, troubles with the Swiss photographer in Xieng Khouang — the police, losing money.
In sum, bad luck. Thus, province in the meantime cleared of a lot of he had sought the advice of a spirit medium. The spirit of the prince who had passed the site. He had put the obligatory glass of rice liquor, incense, fruit, and flowers in front of the en- trance. In addition, two toy cars constituted a special element in this ritual constellation, em- blematizing prosperity and fortune related to business.
A few days later my friend invited me to a ceremony in his house, a so-called basi to recompensate the service of the spirit medium and especially her ghost fig. Otherwise this ghost might get angry as well. Bomb crater at the old temple grounds. As these brief observations suggest, spiritual beings are part and parcel of the social fabric of Laos, while at the same time reflecting past trauma and present anxiety. Spirits entertain manifold relationships with human beings, and sometimes the ontological boundaries between the two worlds become blurred.
People may feel the physicality of spirits, or develop spectral qualities themselves. How to find out? The problem of understanding spirit belief in Southeast Asia is intriguing. It is as fundamental I would soon get a hint. The scale of spiritual for understanding regional nature relations as it concern in Katang communities became clear is for understanding oneself.
This makes it a on the second day of my fieldtrip. During a veritable mess to investigate. Spirits are not village walk a thunderstorm approached so that only common, even central agents in Southeast my informants and I went to take shelter under Asian ecologies; they are also attractive, ap- the stilt-house of my host, the village head, or pealing to the desires of observers, researchers naaibaan. Upon return, I was obligated to buy or tourists, who are disillusioned about modern- lizard laen for dinner from our hosts: I was ism and its discontents.
When the animal was gies comes with a blurring of the boundaries of brought to us, neatly tied up, I felt the irresistible the research process itself. The thunder- storm seriously drew in, more severe than ei- ther my assistant or I had ever experienced before. Some of the policemen, Katang them- selves, became visibly afraid, and especially when lightning hit the simple electrics of the house under which we were taking shelter, causing sparks to fly. Entrance to the spirit forest I will not deal with this mess systematically here Not to be played w ith because I cannot.
I would rather relate an an- ecdote as a case in point. It is set in the Nation- After the storm was over, villagers were agitat- al Protected Area of Dong Phou Vieng in south- ern Laos, in a village of the Katang ethnic group ed about a tree hit by lightning, not far from our and adjacent to a spirit forest that was my focus position.
The charred mark on the bottom of its trunk was sure a sign that phanya in Lord of investigation but which is of minor importance here see Kleinod and forthcoming. Indra was angry with me for taking pictures of Among other things, I wondered whether the the lizard. Villagers kept making gestures of photographing followed by rubbing their neck claim by conservationists was true — that, partly because of clandestine evangelization, spirit with the side of a hand.
I was not so sure about this expla- political and cultural center, Vientiane. To return nation, which became even less convincing to the story, the thunderstorm had abated when the storm returned: we were just conduct- somewhat in its force but remained strong ing a group interview when another lightning enough to make me worry about going outside strike hit the house so that it shook.
Fearing that I might could be hit by lightning but also because of be killed in his house by Indra, we had to im- You Know Who. So that was what villagers ripheral upland sky? Who could be sure…? And believe it or not, the storm receded.
So, what about spirit belief in Southeast Asia? Fear thus seems more adequate here, and it calls for profane pragmatism rather than religious dedi- cation and faith. Spiritual fear is, first of all, a function of existen- tially being at the mercy of something or some- body, it echoes existential precariousness. This experience verified to me the existence of During its history, Western culture had sought spirit belief among these villagers. Or at least I do. And that is my final point: spirit belief may mean similar but different things for Westerners and Katang.
And if they did, who would be in a position to judge? Chi Minh City, Vietnam Retribution comes. The tale comes to its violent end. They teller of old. One may be tempted to read this moved into an isolated cabin near the edge of text as an allegory, concerned with war, death the woods known as the Forest of Ghosts.
Instead, I dwell on the potential The old man is a hunter by trade. His hunting skills are allegorical readings. This short story is part of a almost superhuman. These stories form a The other hunters fear him. They are afraid that mythical chronicle of preternatural, natural and his relentless killings, his overhunting of the human forces in highland valleys of northwest woods, will bring retribution from the spirits of Vietnam. I examine notions of exchange and animals killed wastefully.
Exchange pacts be- hospitality in relation to the figure of the tween hunters and animals, between the world stranger as developed by Georg Simmel. The of the living and that of the dead have been violence of this alien, relentless hunter threat- upended. The precarious balance of intercon- ens the very existence of highland communities nected natural and supernatural relationships in through violations of ritual exchange between the forests surrounding the village is upset.
I conclude by revis- Chaos, famine and madness ensue. In the dis- rary Vietnamese literature by giving voice to tance villagers hear faint echoes. These may be anxiety-producing, destructive thresholds of distant rumblings of combat and war. Strange violence and desire through the foil of legendary phenomena take place. Healthy trees suddenly events, thus slyly undermining authoritarian lose their leaves.
All is quiet in the forest. Ani- political discourse in Vietnam. The old hunter and that leads to storytelling and the sharing of oral his wife are nearly starving. Killing game is their lore. Every day, he ven- the highlands? Not exactly. He disappears for days on end, sleeps in the woods and stalks in Thiep imagines and describes a poetic act root- silence.
He feels he is on the verge of a big kill, ed in hospitality and sharing. What he shares is perhaps of one of those unknown new preda- not solid truth, nor scientific protocols for re- tors said to roam the far depths of the forest. His versions of folk tales and told. It is a commentary on the emergence of local stories are poetic renditions.
He gives us stories in literature. Hua Tat, he begins, is located up common people, extraordinary events and su- remote valleys in the highlands of northwest pernatural deities and forces. We now read the- Vietnam. The elevation makes travel difficult. The narrator tells us that this eerie at- mosphere permeates all encounters and con- The Prologue indirectly presents a theory of versations in Hua Tat.
One rarely sees the full narrative and literature. Ephemeral and transito- contours of what appears nearby. The remote ry, breeze and mist are two key images and valleys, the strange mists and rains give an metaphors in this cycle of short stories. The otherworldly feel to these high places, and not narrator encourages us to think of these tales simply for outsiders.
Several stories relate un- as distant echoes in the breeze, as mists rising canny and ominous occurrences, and fateful and setting over narrow valleys. All is transitory encounters in strange weather. With time a few stories are shared and remain, rewritten and reimag- The prologue ends with an elegy.
Thiep nar- ined anew by succeeding generations of story- rates how inhabitants of Hua Tat tell these tales tellers, by modern writers, by hosts in remote and to whom. If hosts trust visitors as honest highland villages who share local fables and people, they narrate some stories of old for tales over rice alcohol and evening meals. Legends and tales are shared with guests — gifts of language, magic and memory — along We witness here the inclusion of fragments of with dried venison and rice alcohol.
The hospi- mythical themes, elements of traditional folk tality extends beyond food and shelter. It in- tales, and innovative narrative techniques by cludes language, in stories, words and songs, Nguyen Huy Thiep. Now we can date , to help strangers decipher the land and local , , etc.
Hosts and storytellers act as cultural se stories entered into the public sphere, and translators. With these tales they ferry guests moved out of oral storytelling or diary writing across the land, and help them see more clearly and daydreaming. The mute speech2 of these the contours of highland communities. But that tales, presented as stories shared by village too is transient. When the serving dishes are storytellers in upland valleys echo across the empty and all bottles drunk, the contours of the lowlands to reach bewitched readers and the stories are fuzzy like the mist outside — half re- scandalized Communist Party censors and lit- membered, partly forgotten, fragmentary and erary establishment of s post-war Vietnam.
The prologue ends with a meditation on histori- cal contingency and transitory lives. Nguyen Huy Thiep undermines socialist realism, and its These stories are distant messages. But tales of nationalist fervor, righteous war and the they are now located on the printed page.
Who building of a new post-war socialist society. He speaks here? Intel- The thought from outside: toward an ethics lectual study and a sense of the sublime are of discomfort essential; they foster surprise and elaboration.
Thiep dismisses current Vietnamese society The prologue locates the remote valleys that and political culture for its grotesque kitsch, its shelter the hamlets of Hua Tat. It is pass by on their way to highland markets and stunted literature. Those who stay put experience what he writes with this cycle of short stories, temporal discontinuities and disorienting published in modern media outlets in an au- changes in daily experience, status and wealth thoritarian communist state.
He emphasizes Contemplation is a corollary of movement and the coeval nature of this exchange: words and travel. One needs to observe to decipher new stories, songs and poetry are shared over food customs and ways of life, as Thiep does in new and drink, as part of hospitality in remote high- places, through conversations, encounters and land villages. Listening is how these stories the hospitality of tribal highland groups in emerged.
Writers record a surfeit of Messengers of death details. Thiep is awed by the eerie echoes and mists of upland valleys. These stories originate The old hunter and his wife live near the edge from echoes carried by the breeze. It matters of the woods in an isolated area called the For- little if they originate from the pen of Thiep.
He is an ex- origin. We can now trace and interpret the re- tremely skillful hunter. He is also an obsessive placement of oral tales and fables by short sto- and cruel killer. Unlike animal predators, he kills ries published in serial formats in the contempo- indiscriminately. The Nguyen Huy Thiep does not treat as backward other hunters are jealous of his skill but fear his or primitive those remote places where he says reckless killings.
They fear retribution for the the stories originate. He often draws on isolat- excesses of death he spreads everywhere. He ed, mysterious locales in his writing. Yet these creates spaces of death in his path. He does not seek primitive purity. This is not a doomed His wife is silent. No one has heard her voice. She is alive, and up and observations of ethnographers and local chroni- about in the village and the woods, but without clers.
He writes on the basis of reporting or nar- language. She is outside the social world of rating stories, for which he imagines distant and women in the village. Villagers keep their dis- foreign origins. He writes in the Prologue that tance, and do not extend hospitality networks to these stories originate in local tribal lore shared the old couple, who remain nameless and mys- in family gatherings, and with strangers who terious.
She shares no gossip and no news. She power of souls of all the animals he killed. Souls does not participate in social life and is prevent- of animals are potentially the reincarnated souls ed from doing so by the fear of villagers. Her of humans, as all sentient beings participate distant muteness renders her uncanny and equally in the cosmos.
The hunter and his wife threatening. Her features and those of her hus- break multiple taboos at once. His reckless kill- band are monstrous and animalistic. They show ing upset rules of social exchange and relation- signs of strangeness well-known to folk tales ships with the forest. He does not simply hunt, and myth. His relentless hunts killed and scared off forest animals. The woods are silent. Other calamities flow in his wake.
The forest is These strangers are different from the poor and empty. The animals are all gone. Starvation strangers of Georg Simmel. For Simmel, hangs over the village. Their mem- bership in the group is paradoxical. They are Eventually, in a last fit of paroxysmic violence members of the group by virtue of their collec- the old hunter aims his killing inward.
Compul- tive identification as strangers. This is not fully sion finds new targets closer to home. By the same token, lage in uncanny ways, by means of odors of these collective others are strangers to you. Though in a liminal threshold posi- and temples. As strangers, they appeared and reciprocal exchange — by foregrounding the in the village unannounced.
Villagers do not haunting hold of violent death over life. They live in the far margins of the village, One explanation is that contagious deaths near the Forest of Ghosts. They live by graves rubbed off on the old hunter and his wife. Their of the dead at forest edge, among rotting car- physical associations with death, with blood, casses of their kills tossed behind the cabin.
The old forest margins toward the village. The old couple are strangers who bring in radical, irre- hunter and his wife are scavengers, they are ducible difference into public view. They differ- animals of death. Contagious, violent Are they messengers of death? Have they be- death rubbed off on them, and now threatens to come death because of their ceaseless killings?
We do not know taboo. From the perspective of other villagers, if he enjoys it. But he is ruthlessly efficient at it. His skill risk coming back to harm the hunter and his with the hunting gun inspires fear. His shooting wife, and by association, other villagers.
Yet hunting is also how the old couple eat and survive. No kills means nothing to eat. They are The violent imbalance imposed by the old not farmers. We do not get Its emptiness is threatening and uncanny. All explanations and context for the hunting econ- leaves have fallen, unnamed predators roam omy of the village. Rotting death comes into view. Odors Contagious death, rebounding violence and cannot be turned off or ignored. The starvation and threats of collective retribution.
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Molugu, Sanjay Kumar Structural investigation of the molecular chaperonin TF55 from the thermophilic archeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. Montelongo, Irma Victoria Illicit inhabitants: Empire, immigration, race, and sexuality on the U. Montes, Edith Using fair division methods for allocating transportation funds. Moreno, Rueben An analysis of current and former residential student academic success at a Hispanic Serving Institution on the United States-Mexico border.
Mortazavi, Saideh Sadat Isomerase activity of Candida rugosa lipase in conversion of racemic ibuprofen to S -ibuprofen. Mukherjee, Arnab Impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles on green pea plant and seed quality and effects on physiological traits of green peas, corn, and zucchini by silver nanoparticles.
Murray, Nicholas Gerald Evaluation of static and dynamic postural control in athletes with concussions during recovery. Nehls, Jonathan S Dust: Polvo. Oaxaca, Derrick Matthew Functional genomic and proteomic analysis of highly drug resistant Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. Ochoa, Victoria Norma Risk assessment of waterborne Cryptosporidium.
Ortega, Alejandro Crystal structure, phase, and optical properties of yttrium-doped hafnium oxide nanocrystalline thin films. O'Shaughnessy, Denise Bowen Tax compliance determinants: A proposed model for cross-country analysis. Paez, Aurelio A study of Ti-doped WO3 thin films using comparative theoretical and experimental approach. Pallarez, Edward El Paso parking meter demand.
Palsole, Sunay Vasant Development of a transferable student engagement and knowledge retention framework for the earth sciences. Palsole, Tia L Redemption store. Panthee, Rajendra Kumar Inviting Citizen Designers to design learning management system LMS interfaces for student agency in a crosscultural digital contact zone.
Pazos, Javier Jair Digitally manufactured spatially variant photonic crystals. Penalver, Renee Michelle The effects of word frequency and language proficiency on repetition priming and picture naming. Peters, Abby Public social network sites and social recruiting. Pham, VietHang Thi The rhetorical making of a personhood: A Vietnamese woman's journey into literacies and subjectivities. Pownuk, Andrew M Fast algorithm for finding lattice subspaces in R n and its implementation.
Pulido, Amanda Jo Factors affecting student-athletes' perceptions of online privacy issues on Twitter: A communication privacy management perspective. Rahman, Md Taibur Synthesis, microstructure and performance evaluation of gadolinium incorporated cobalt ferrite ceramics. Rahman, Shofiqur Essays in corporate finance. Ramos, Corin Si se puede: The effects of collective angst and identity on group activism during the national immigration debate. Resendez, Ileana M Residential electricity demand in Arkansas.
Reyes, Francisco R Exploring the hydrogeologic controls on brackish water and its suitability for use in hydraulic fracturing: the Dockum Aquifer, Midland Basin Texas. Reyes, Francisco R Exploring the hydrogeologic controls on brackish water and its suitability for use in hydraulic fracturing: The Dockum Aquifer, Midland Basin, Texas.
Reyna Soriano, Daniel Inkjet bioprinting of solid peroxides for constructing oxygen generating scaffolds to improve cells viability and growth under hypoxic environment. Rico, Cyren M Effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles in cereals: Insights into the toxicity mechanisms and macromolecular modifications. Rivera, Julie Ann The notion of cultural assimilation into an American identity: Abstract or concrete? Roacho, Robinson Synthesis and characterization of fluorophores for the detection of lanthanides and actinides.
Rodriguez De La O, Mario Eduardo Design and development of implantable and remote controlled distraction osteogenesis device for limb lengthening practice in children. Rodriguez, Liza Stephanie Use of cosine modulated filter bank to quantify human muscle fatigue using electromyography signals obtained during isometric voluntary contractions. Rodriguez, Ricardo Xavier Characterization of direct print additive manufacturing process for 3D build of a carbon nanostructure composite.
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Sierra, Ruth M Effect of rhenium on short term oxidation of niobium based alloys for high temperature applications. Singh, Satvir Idiosyncratic deals to employee outcomes: Mediating role of social exchange relationships and social comparison and moderating role of unit climate. Singhvi, Ankita Three essays on auditor industry specialization. Smith, Curtis Acknowledging the homeless who are not mentally ill in the context of medicalized housing assistance.
Sneed, John Jeremy Assessing U. Songur, Hilmi Essays on authorized shares, stock splits, and top-up options. Staudt Dane'el, Mosi Investigating the efficacy of traffic-light labeling for nutrition label presentation. Tabares, Lorena Elizabeth The Argentine tango as a discursive instrument and agent of social empowerment: Buenos Aires, Tapia, Raul Subordinate accountants' perceptions of their superiors' leadership and performance: The study of moderating variables in the accounting profession.
Terrazas Najera, Cesar Adrian Characterization of high-purity niobium structures fabricated using the electron beam melting process. Thapalia, Anita Geochemical studies of backfill aggregates, lake sediment cores and the Hueco Bolson Aquifer.
Torres, Juan Rafael The problem of using evil against the possible existence of God. Trejo, Adrian An experimental investigation of the cooling channel geometry effects on the internal forced convection of liquid methane. Trevino, Karen The spillover effects of conflict on economic growth along the U. Trujillo, Abraham Gerardo An experimental investigation of liquid methane convection and boiling in rocket engine cooling channels. Ullah, Sk. Barkat Firm growth around the world: Financial constraints, corruption, and privatization.
Umlauf, Tadeas Sustainable public transportation in large cities: Demand estimation. Vance, Rodney Wayne Biofuel feedstock optimization considering different land cover scenarios and watershed impacts. Vargas, Mirella Nanometric structure-property relationship in hafnium oxide thin films made by sputter-deposition. Vazquez, Daniel Homeomorphisms between pairs of genus two handlebodies and separating circles in their boundaries.
Vazquez, Yahaira Santiago Identification and characterization of novel antileukemia and anti-lymphoma compounds. Vecera, Radim Model of urban freight transportation in agglomerations. Vera, Linda S Modeling and simulation of a lead-free active structural fiber for multifunctional composites.
Verma, Ajay Kumar A robust algorithm for estimating the balance of Autonomic Nervous System with application to mental fatigue detection using photoplethysmographic PPG signals. Weller, Jalaine Nicole Slavocracy's collective Atlantic: Utopian and dystopian discourse in contemporary narratives of slavery. Wheeler, Jeffrey Allen Predicting propylene loss with inferential model development using design of experiments DOE and historical data.
Wilcoxon, Elizabeth Marie A corpus-based study of the use of prepositional verbs in second language emergent academic writing. Wilson, Cameron King Perspectives on the nature of science from a group of students attending predominantly Hispanic West Texas high school.
Wynne, Craig Toward a theory of productivity problems in graduate student writing. Yang, Shuang The role of social norms in consumers' evaluations of brands from emerging countries. Yatskievych, Michael North Korean supernotes: Nuclear arms financed by counterfeit currency. Yoon, Linda Hyemin Design optimization of the heat transfer model for a high heat flux test facility.
Zavala de Guerrero, Jesica B The effects of cognates on receptive and expressive language among typically developing preschool second language-learners. Zhao, Kai The interfacial fracture of bonded materials and composites. Zheng, Jun E-quality control using 3D reconstruction and 3D measurement. Zokaei Ashtiani, Mohammad Ali Enhanced finite element modeling of the thermo-mechanical responses of jointed PCC pavements under environmental and traffic loads. Abdelfattah, Belal M. T Essays on the digital divide.
Achury, Susan Political corruption: Accountability and party system institutionalization. Bustamante Wastewater Treatment Plants, using descriptive statistics and basic statistical process control. Adkins, Gary Utilizing cyber espionage to combat terrorism. Jane: A Murder de Maggie Nelson. Aguirre-Covarrubias, Sandra Portraits of success: A mixed-method study of the enrollment, persistence, and success experiences of female graduate engineering students at a Hispanic Serving Institution.
Aguirre, Katherine Marie Predictors of resilience among Hispanic adults: Stepwise analyses from late adolescence to adulthood. Alarcon, Jennifer Lorie The impact of interpersonal communication on breastfeeding. Alay G. Aldalinsi, Mustafa Abushaala A method to reduce plastic shrinkage cracking of concrete using re-vibration technique.
Al-Zou'bi, Mazin Moh'd A systematic approach to manage missing data in pavement management systems. Amato, Krista Naomi Comparative characterization of nickel-base superalloys fabricated by laser and electron beam melting technologies. Anderson, Katie Influences of ecological light pollution on advertisement calls of Spea multiplicata Ambphibia: Aanura: Schaphiopodidae in rural and urban populations in the northern Chihuahuan Desert and an evaluation of hybrid S.
Appiah Kubi, John Multiplicity adjustments for respecification searches in structural equation models. Austin, Mauricio E Substance abuse and rehabilitation: Understanding the issue from first-hand accounts. Azari, Hoda Optimization of stress wave-based nondestructive methods in identifying deterioration in concrete structures. Bandyopadhyay, Susmita Interaction of CeO2 and ZnO nanoparticles towards the symbiotic association of alfalfa Medicago sativa and Sinorhizobium meliloti in soil.
Barman, Sajib Kumar Scalar polarization operator in a superfluid medium. Barua Olivo, Maria Eugenia Supply chain management: Impact of customer relationship marketing on performance under cooperation and competition strategies. Bedoui, Adel Comparison of Bayesian nonparametric density estimation methods.
Bess, Michael Kirkland Routes of compromise: Road building and motor transportation in modern Mexico, Bogale, Melaku Ayenew Modeling the human gait phases using granular computing. Bolanos, Andres Efren The investigation of the practice of frugal innovation across cultures and the introduction of an instructional model for streamlining the design process. Bosse, Courtney E Size dependent transitions in grafted polymer brushes.
Brown, Michelle Renee Evaluation of novel backwashable cartridge filters: Efficacy and sustainability. Budhathoki, Pawan Integrated geological and geophysical studies of the Indio Mountains and Hueco bolson, west Texas. Bueno, Avilia A state-to-state analysis of Mexican migration to the U. Burgos-Monzon, Ximena The mediating role of dietary patterns on the relation between acculturation, psychosocial factors, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the U. Call, Daniel Elton Exploring the determinants of gay rights policies at the state level: A mixed methods approach.
Cardenas, Rolando Software development for a 3D gravity inversion and application to study of the Border Ranges Fault System, south-central Alaska. Carl, Abigail R Pressing seams. Carrasco, Aldo Factors associated with consistent condom use among Mixtec and Zapotec men who migrate. Carrillo, Alejandra Language of intervention in bilingual children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Carrillo, Victor M Post-Pareto optimality methods for the analysis of large Pareto sets in multi-objective optimization.
Chavez-Gibson, Sarah The Comprehensive, Powerful, Academic Database CPAD : An evaluative study of a predictive tool designed for elementary school personnel in identifying at-risk students through progress, curriculum, and performance monitoring. Chavez Payan, Paola Low birth weight, prenatal smoking, pest exposure and breastfeeding modify the effect of acculturation on Hispanic children's asthma.
Cheng, Lidens Quark fluctuations in a chiral model in the presence of a magnetic field. Cram, Ana Catalina Development of a new genetic algorithm to solve the feedstock scheduling problem in an anaerobic digester. Delgado Martinez, Roxana E Phenomenology of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in military personnel. Delgado, Paul M A block operator splitting method for heterogeneous multiscale poroelasticity. Del Rio, Nicholas A declarative domain independent approach for querying and generating visualizations.
DiGregorio, Rena Marie Stress appraisal, coping response, and acculturation level as predictors of postpartum depression symptoms in women of Mexican origin. Dodoo, Christopher Alfred Principal differential analysis: incorporating covariates with kernel smoothers.
Dolan, Lindsay D Examining articulatory kinematics using diadochokinesis in concussed and non-concussed individuals. Duke, Misty C The development of the rapport scales for investigative interviews and interrogations. Eldeb, Abdelatif B Assessing the equity implications of greenspace distribution in an arid region. Enge, Luke Robert Guilty by association: Time-dependent memory consolidation and the generalization of person-specific traits to other social group members. Espinoza, Carlos Fidel A son of mercy, un hijo de misericordia.
Falcon, Stephenie Michel Victims or criminals? The effects of the media on the public perception of the role of children in the Mexican drug war. Felix, Jessie E Reits and stock market cointegration. Flores Montoya, Mayra Gisel Behavioral markers of chronic low-level lead exposure in young mice. Galindo, Aurea L School library acquisitions policy: How it impacts the delivery of library services to middle school English language learners. Gallegos, Flor Gabriela Phosphoric acid based solar absorber coatings.
Garcia, Chance P Pressure and heat flux effects on the heat transfer characteristics of liquid methane. Garcia, Melissa Ivonne The impact of baby sign language on motor development in typically developing infants and toddlers. Garza-Ulloa, Jorge Assessment and evaluation of the dynamic behavior of muscles with special reference to subjects with diabetes mellitus. Gomez, Celina Uranga A qualitative study of curriculum in a developmental reading course at a community college. Gomez, Maria Alicia Animals.
Gonzales, Amanda L The effect of exogenous leptin on dendritic cell migration and interactions with T cells. Greenhalgh, Daniel Bruce Shadows on the Wall. Groeschel, Sandra Luz Primary drug and multidrug resistant tuberculosis, of the diagnostic properties of the sputum smear versus culture method for tuberculosis diagnosis in an Ecuadorian urban public health facility.
Gupta, Gaurav The impact of organizational culture on decisions to use Comprehensive Performance Measurement Systems. Gutierrez, Marisela Strengthening cognitive development in minority populations: A study of the beneficial effects of bilingualism. Harney, Michael Joseph A case study towards the verification of the utility of analytical models in selecting checkpoint intervals.
Haro, Anna Valeria The construction of gender occupations in Mexico: Government issued elementary textbooks. Heinlein, Sarah Natalie Application of various remote sensing and aerial photography data sets to resolve surface structure in areas of poor exposure: Examples from Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia and Katalla area, Alaska USA.
Hernandez, Jennifer Microstructures and properties for titanium aluminide superalloy prototypes fabricated by electron beam melting and thermally processed. Hernandez, Miguel Reduced-order modeling using orthogonal and bi-orthogonal wavelet transforms.
Herrera Hernandez, Juana Maribel Functional data analysis to guide a conditional likelihood regression in a case-crossover study investigating whether social characteristics modify the health effects of air pollution. Herrera, Linda Jazmin Validation of N-myristoyltransferase as potential chemotherapeutic target in Chagas disease. Hinojos, Jesus Francisco Predictors of academic success between on track and off track students in a Mexican university.
Ibarra, Jesusita Solving logistic system design problem considering various biomass feedstock using two metaheuristic optimization methods. Iniguez, Eva A Ruthenium-azole complexes as chemotherapeutic agents against Leishmaniasis. Islam, Shariful MD. Islam, Towhidul MD. Jabeen, Nishad The antecedents and consequences of trust in authorities for protection against cartel violence and terrorism threat. Jahid, Abu MD. Jastrzembski, Joseph Anthony Traditionalism, institutions, and rational bargaining in sub-Saharan African civil conflict.
Jones, Rachell Leanne The effect of co-witness information and individual differences in cognitive abilities on the suggestibility of pre-school children. Karim, Hasanul Development of 'lick and stick' passive wireless temperature sensor for harsh environment. Karkhedkar, Shreyas Ashok Using emotion as inferred from prosody in language modeling. Kongu, Abhilash Structural, optical and electrical properties of yttrium-doped hafnium oxide nanocrystalline thin films.
Koppella, Karthik Varma Manikanta Critical parts retrieval and profit maximization for medical sustainability using design for disassembly and modularity. LaBianca, Julia Rose Motivations for a source to resist an interrogation: Consequences to the self versus consequences to an other. Lachica, Josue Gilberto Homelessness and migration at the edge of America: Transnational mobility and survival in the streets of El Paso.
Laney, Christine Marie Toward new data and information management solutions for data-intensive ecological research. Langston, Stacy M The threat of domestic bioterrorism: Fact or fiction? Lawson, Katherine Aileen The impact of fear of falling on functional independence. Lerma, Rafael The purposeful demonization of Muslims and Arabs by the mass media. Lozano, Maria del Carmen Method development for a chemical and biological analysis of glucocorticoids in wastewater.
Lukefahr, William Dawson Comparison of ectoparasitic mite loads between gonochoristic Aspidoscelis marmorata and parthenogenic A. Lynch-Arroyo, Ruby Lorilee Complexity of affective disposition and reflective transphenomenality: An exploratory study of middle school mathematics teacher and student self-positioning and positioning-by-others toward mathematics, mathematics teaching, and learning.
Lyons, David K Analyzing the effectiveness of Al Qaeda's online influence operations by means of propaganda theory. Macauley, Laura Framed golden arch messages: A content analysis of McDonald's television commercials in correlation with the obesity epidemic around the globe. Machado, Marco Antonio Nanocomposite and mechanically alloyed reactive materials as energetic additives in chemical oxygen generators. Macias, David Ronald El Paso residential electricty demand. Macias, Lynda Jeanette Attitude towards green warehousing in el paso, texas: an exploratory analysis.
Maes, Angelique Nevarez The strength of family bonds: A look into the lives of a family that has overcome adversity and marginality. Implications to crustal evolution and geodynamics. Mariscal, Jacqueline Potential for sylvatic mammals and stray canines in transmission of leishmaniasis and Trypanosoma cruzi in Paso del Norte border area. Marquez-Velarde, Guadalupe Mental health in a colonia. Martinez, Edwin Exploring new concepts in directional solidification by electron beam melting and selective laser melting.
Martinez, Gustavo Microstructure and mechanical properties of titanium nitride optical coatings made by DC magnetron sputtering. Martinez Hernandez, Ricardo New topics on nanoindentation of polymers and composite materials. Martinez, Jennifer Lynn Assessment of water quality and benthic macroinvertebrate community in a wastewater receiving constructed wetland.
Martinez Jurado, Jessica Endocrine disrupting compound 4-nonylphenol and neurodegeneration. Martinez, Krystal Cross-border mobility, access to healthcare through health coverage, and other correlates for utilization of healthcare services along the U. Martinez, Monica Vanessa My mother's daughter. Martinez-Schabez, Ethel Regina Optimization of biomass logistics system using genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization for biofuel production.
McCorry-Andalis, Catherine Academic and social adjustment of students transitioning from an early college high school program to an institution of higher education. Medina, Fransisco Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production.
Melendez, Griselda Sumoylation exerts minimal effects on the splicing regulatory activity of the influenza A virus non-structural protein NS1. Menchaca, Angelica Catalina When medicine divorces morality: The effects of immigration status on health care access in the United States. Mendoza, Miguel Investigating the validity of a survey intended to gauge mathematics problem-solving disposition along the impulsive-analytic dimension.
Michael, Stephen W Strategic approaches to lying: Understanding their impact on psychological processes, cues to deception, and perceptions of observers. Miller, Nickole Ann Changes in net ecosystem production over the past 40 years in arctic tundra ponds near Barrow, Alaska: Application of historic and modern techniques. Mireles, Jorge Process study and control of electron beam melting technology using infrared thermography. Monty, Randall William Theoretical Communities of Praxis: The university writing center as cultural contact zone.
Morales, Maria Isabel Impact of cerium oxide nanoparticles on cilantro Coriandrum sativum. Muro, Andres The development and validation of a domestic violence scale administered to GED program participants to determine the effect on test performance. Narayana Swamy, Ashvin Kumar Experimental study on the fabrication of advanced materials for energy applications using high energy mechanical milling. Navedo, Clarissa Michelle Benefits of baby sign on cognitive development in infants. Nemec, Blake Mouth to Mouth.
Ngo, Anh Duc Investigations into the underpricing of seasoned equity offerings and the cost of equity. Ochoa, Omar Model fusion: A new approach to processing heterogeneous data. Olguin, Marco Augusto Organic photovoltaics: A charge transfer perspective in the study of donor-acceptor systems. O'Neill, Marisol Identification of kinase signaling pathways inducing morphological changes in dendritic cells upon leptin treatment.
Ornelas, Alfredo Photochemical synthesis of amino acid and peptide oxo-esters. Ortega-Corral, Noe High-recovery inland desalination: Concentrate treatment by electrodialysis and batch reverse osmosis. Ortiz, Anna Cristina Carbon emissions from soil respiration in the northern Chihuahuan Desert shrubland. Pagel, Myshie Mcgavock Rewriting revision: A case study of first year composition students.
Pal, Sarit Novel copper II mediated transfection nano-systems and biological properties of pyridinium surfactants. Parra-Cisneros, Blanca Estela Evaluation of language of intervention on expressive-receptive lexical skills for preschool bilingual children. Peinado, Porfirio Geochemical characterization of mineral dust sources in the Chihuahuan Desert and southern High Plains regions.
Perez, Mireya Aidee Manufacturing nerve guidance conduits by stereolithography for use in peripheral nerve regeneration. Pokharel, Ramesh Kumar Re mapping the rhetorical situation: Toward a transactional networked ecology. Polanco, Javier Surface plasmon polaritons and waveguide modes at structured and inhomogeneous surfaces. Portillo, Enrique Efficient, scalable, parallel, matrix-matrix multiplication. Puentes, Rebeca B Tea Party movement mobilization: Examining the role of emotive cues and strategic appeals.
Quiroz Enriquez, Brissa Yazmin Environmental education through the lens of diverse elementary school students in the United States: A phenomenographic study. Raguini, Pepito B Applying axiomatic design to a medication distribution system.
Rajib, Md Development of advanced polymer nanocomposite capacitors. Ramirez, Bianca The Chicana experience in Indonesia: An autoethnography and dialogic performance evaluating the influence of cultural identity and gender. Ramirez, David Alexandro An econometric approach for modeling population change in Arkansas. Ramirez, Jeremy Lee Preparing teachers for use of impact activities: An exploratory study.
Ramirez, Julio The role of a culturally appropriate lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular disease risk in Hispanic adults from El Paso, Texas. Ramirez Villamarin, Carlos Andres Unconstrained L1 optimization with applications to signal and image processing. Ramirez, Yasmin Por un amor. Ramos-Almeida, Jorge The development of self-supported electromechanical structures using Fused Deposition Modeling.
Rendl, Tomas Assessing regional impacts of transportation policies and traffic management solutions in large urban areas. Rivera, Judith Noemi Two-photon microscopy of nanoparticles and biotissues. Robles Dominguez, Ubaldo 3D printed impedance elements by micro-dispensing. Rodriguez Devora, Jorge Ivan Inkjet based personalized screening platform for cancer therapy.
Rodriguez, Emmanuel Development of a thermal imaging feedback control system in electron beam melting. Romo, Alicia Analysis of vehicle interactions on interstate highways: Discrete choice and linear systems approaches. Ross, Amy B Assessing naturalistic decision making by experienced and inexperienced interrogators in high stakes interviews.
Saavedra, Yvette J Competing visions: the politics of racial and ethnic identity formation and land use in Pasadena, Saenz, Daniel A hybrid modelling approach for maintenance and rehabilitation treatment effectiveness of asphalt pavements in Texas. Salas, Adriana Developing a sustainable ecotourism foundation in Indonesian national parks using cross-cultural adaptation and communication framing. Salas, Rodolfo 3D printing for the rapid prototyping of structural electronics.
Sanchez Arias, Reinaldo A convex optimization algorithm for sparse representation and applications in classification problems. Sanchez, Paola G Event related potential changes in a two-stimulus auditory oddball task in concussed college athletes: A linguistic component. Santos, Ivan Asynchronous logic design with increased fault tolerance and optimized for subthreshold operation. Sauceda, John Andrew A diathesis-stress approach to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms associated with an HIV diagnosis: Implications for medication non-adherence.
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It opens on a scathing picture of contemporary Hong Kong left in the hands of or his recent Ghost Milk (), Capital returns to explicitly realistic. It is clear that will be a remarkable year in terms BeHAvIoUrAl fINANce, BArclAyS countries including Brazil, Hong Kong. What are the stunning examples on how Hong Kong used all the available space in As the new housing and town was being built, it was called a ghost city.