If you have a specific underlying asset in mind, look for sites that specialize in your preferred area. If not, you may benefit most from a platform with a few dozen products available. Some platforms counter their low payouts with rewards or other advantages, while others end up taking more of your money than they are worth.
Minimum Deposits Binary options trading brokers usually place a minimum deposit amount on each trading account. Demo Accounts Demo accounts are beneficial for users still learning the ins and outs of trading binary options. Many brokers allow you to create free demo accounts to test out binary options trades with fake, virtual currency. You can use these accounts to see how your choices affect whether you win or lose money, helping you become more confident before using real funds. Demo accounts also allow you to try out several binary options brokers before choosing one.
Country Restrictions Binary options trading is a highly regulated form of investing, and some countries place specific regulations on how their citizens can participate. Many brokers do not operate within the United States due to U. The U. As you search for the best binary options brokers, make sure the trading platforms you visit are available within your country. Deposit Methods Giving your bank account or credit card information away comes with risks, and you should always make sure a broker uses safe payment options before proceeding.
Binary options brokers should specify up front which deposit methods they accept, such as credit or debit cards, cryptocurrencies, e-wallets, or bank wire transfers. Consider which payment methods you feel comfortable using as you search for the right options broker.
And after you begin trading through a platform, keep an eye on your bank account—unsafe websites could start making unauthorized withdrawals from your account. Speed of Withdrawals When you earn profits on your binary options contracts, you probably want to receive your money as soon as possible. Some options brokers have speedy withdrawal times, allowing you to receive your funds within 24 hours of the expiry times.
Other sites may require you to wait several days before you can collect your profits. Trading Apps Some brokers offer both web browser platforms and apps, allowing you to make trades from several different devices. Pocket Option and IQ Option are two of our favorite mobile-friendly options brokers. Binary options brokers can make money in two different ways. First, some brokers act as the counterparty, or the trader against whom you are betting.
Every binary options trade needs to have two sides: one party who bets yes, and one who bets no. Many brokers make money the same way traders do—by winning some trades and losing others. However, because these platforms often have millions of clients, their profit potentials tend to be higher than that of the average trader.
Other binary options brokers make money through commission. These brokers act as the middleman, matching traders depending on whether they want to buy or sell. Brokers who charge commission also tend to offer leverage to encourage larger trade sizes, producing more profit for the broker. Making accounts with multiple brokers can be beneficial for several reasons.
First, some brokers specialize in specific types of trades. If you plan to make trades across several categories, such as short-term, call option, and binary options trades, you may want to create one account with each type of broker.
Utilizing several platforms also reduces the risk of placing all your eggs in one basket. Further, some sites offer sign-up offers for new users that allow you to expand your initial deposit for free. It may be beneficial to create accounts on multiple sites and distribute your funds among each to take advantage of these bonuses.
However, if you decide to make accounts on multiple platforms, be sure not to lose track of your activity on each. Trying to keep several expiry times in mind may cause you to miss deadlines and lose out on profits, canceling out the benefits of using several brokers.
Are Binary Options Brokers Regulated? Many binary option brokers are regulated by a financial industry regulatory authority. However, there are still many unregulated brokers within the industry. Regulators worldwide have been slow to catch up with the industry. Some agencies and organizations do have regulations in place. Regulatory agencies with a significant presence in the U.
Even with increasing oversight of every binary options broker, the market has some unregulated brokers. You may have noticed that several of the trading platforms on our list are not available in the U. Currently, the only regulated broker in the U.
One reason regulation is more stringent in the U. Some regulators define binary option trading as a form of gambling. However, a few offshore brokers, such as Pocket Option and RaceOption, accept traders worldwide, including those in the U.
Should Beginners Trade Binary Options? Trading binary options is an excellent way for beginners to dive into the trade market. Binary options are easier to understand than other markets because of their binary nature—you only have two options, yes and no, for each bet. And though trading binary options comes with significant risk, that risk is more defined than trading in other markets. You know exactly what you stand to gain or lose with each bet, and you will never lose more money than what you provide upfront in your contracts.
Finally, a binary options broker can make it easy for beginners to learn more about binary options markets. Many of the sites we reviewed offer tools and resources specifically for educational purposes. Demo accounts also allow beginners to try out the market in real-time without losing any money. Is Binary Options Trading Safe? On the whole, trading binary options is as safe as any other trade market.
Securities and Exchange Commission approved binary options in , and traders worldwide consider this form of trading one of the safest on the market. One reason binary options trading is so safe is that it is straightforward and easy-to-understand. However, not every binary options broker is safe and reliable.
The best way to ensure that your trade is secure is to use a trusted binary broker with a safe trading platform. You should only deposit money with a regulated binary options broker if you feel confident that the trading platform is trustworthy and if it has positive reviews from other traders. Select an Underlying Asset to Trade The toughest part may be narrowing down your choices.
Binary trading has a widespread reach covering commodities, stocks, indices, and forex. You can choose to wager on just about everything. Stocks are a popular underlying asset choice because they have the potential for larger gains in a shorter period. In a way, you can play the stock market without the financial contract of a call option. Indices, commodities, and currency are common choices, too.
You can also try out the foreign currency or forex market as a binary trader. Though forex trading may cost more this way, you have the benefit of a loss cap so you can try it without major risk. When it comes to trading binary options, your choices are almost limitless.
Do some market research and study the data. Pick an asset that intrigues you and has solid potential returns. Choose Your Investment Amount How much capital are you willing to wager in the binary options game? The good news is that the more you invest, the higher your potential profit. The bad news is that you stand to lose your full trade amount depending on the outcome. You need to decide what amount of money you can stand to lose while making sure you invest enough for sufficient binary trades and worthwhile payout.
Choose Your Expiry Time Think of the expiry time as the binary option finish line. Expiry times vary from 30 seconds to the end of day, clear up to one year. Anything longer than the end of day is classified as long-term. Think about your trading style and goals. Do you want to make a bunch of trades and increase your profit potential? Bear in mind that shorter expiry means more risk for the trader. In addition to the binary options low deposit amount, withdrawals take only one business day, which is pretty much the best you can hope for with any binary options broker.
Deriv, formerly known as Binary, was one of the first platforms to allow users to trade binary options. Founded in , the brokerage remains one of the most popular binary options brokers online. Deriv is regulated by four different government bodies from Malta, Malaysia, and Vanuatu. You can trade with binary options, Forex, cryptocurrencies, raw materials, metals, and synthetic indices. There are multiple platforms to trade on.
Two of them, DTrader and SmartTrader, are designed for beginners. They have simple UIs and tutorials to help you get a grasp of binary options trading. Another automated option is DBot, which allows users to create their own trading robot with set trading preferences.
Of course, if you prefer trading on your mobile device, then Deriv GO could be the platform of your choice. Deriv also has a unique feature called Lookback. This is a type of trading contract where the payout depends on the optimum high or low achieved by the market. Deriv does not disclose what the maximum trade size is, however. Withdrawal requests are processed within 24 hours, so you can get your hands on the money fairly quickly.
The good news for rookie traders is that they get access to a free demo account upon signup. This allows them to get familiar with binary trading and how the platform works before jumping in with real money. This company works with binary options, weather forecasts, Forex, and precious metals. As one of the best Forex binary options brokers, CX Markets allows its users to make Forex binary options trades at any dollar amount they can comfortably afford. Settlements are quoted in percentage points.
Furthermore, as one of the best regulated binary options brokers, CXMarkets employs a group of professional traders who are always there to help the less experienced site members with expert advice on how to handle their accounts. Launched in , Nadex, short for Northern American Derivatives Exchange, is a US-based exchange for online binary options, call spreads, and knock-outs. Due to the safety and security rules imposed by the CFTC, Nadex keeps the funds its users deposit in separate bank accounts.
As one of the best regulated binary options brokers in the USA, Nadex offers its users access to the following markets:. The platform is fairly easy to use and offers multiple filtering options by price, asset class, expiry time, and more. This US binary options broker gives all of its prospective users a chance to test out the platform before making a deposit. This elevates Nadex above other options brokers. Another reason why we would recommend investing in binary options via Nadex is that the company provides excellent customer support, offers a comprehensive knowledge base, and even organizes webinars and daily market analysis events.
Quotex is a relatively new digital options broker owned by Awesomo LTD, a company based in Seychelles. But even though it only appeared on the market in , Quotex has already made a name for itself in the online trading world. As one of the leading binary options brokers, Quotex allows investors to trade with multiple assets, such as commodities, indices, cryptocurrencies, and forex. Quotex offers three different account types: basic, pro, and VIP. This option is ideal for beginner traders who want to test how the platform works before making cash commitments.
It offers a wide variety of options, including currency pairs, stocks, and commodities. The number of assets available will depend on your account type. Users can also take advantage of the mobile trading app, which is available for both Android and iOS devices. The app is user-friendly and offers all the features that are available on the desktop version.
Out-of-the-money trades will result in a loss of your invested amount. Overall, Quotex is one of the best binary options brokers for beginners that offers a wide range of assets, account types, and features. It has a demo account and a dedicated mobile app so that users can trade on the go without missing any investment opportunities. So, if you're looking for a reliable broker with a user-friendly platform, Quotex is definitely worth considering.
Based on a yes-or-no proposition, binary options offer a way to make trades with capped risk and limited profit potential. Both bid and ask prices are determined by the traders themselves as they speculate on whether the probability set forth is worth it or not. These financial options either provide a payout of a fixed amount agreed upon in advance or no profit at all. A binary options trade is one of the simplest investment mechanisms. Traders try to determine whether an underlying asset will be above or below a projected price and place trades accordingly.
Given this unique level of simplicity, global financial markets, including those in the US, witnessed a considerable inflow of both binary options traders and platforms offering this type of investment capability. Investors should learn how to trade binary options by getting familiar with markets, timeframes, advantages, disadvantages, and perhaps most importantly, legal frameworks and regulations.
However, the tricky part is that not all companies offering these trading instruments are legally authorized to do so. So why is regulation important? Legal authorization is there to protect the investors, make sure their money is held in a separate account, and offer them a path to follow in the event of a dispute.
Therefore, the best platforms for binary options should be those authorized by designated agencies. While there are several legitimate trading partners you can work with, the binary options market has recently been plagued with shady brokers offering instant money. A helpful rule of thumb here is that if an offer sounds too good to be true, it probably is, and you should stay away from it. While almost all countries impose some kind of restrictions when it comes to binary options trading, the rules are a little different in the US.
Given the risks associated with this type of investment, binary options are perceived as gambling. The most important thing is for the platform to have permission to offer its services to American traders. For other countries, make sure to check whether the broker platform accepts users from your location and whether their operations are legal.
A binary option is a type of option with a fixed payout in which the investor tries to predict the outcome from two possible results. These financial options are called binary because they can only lead to one of the two payoff options: A fixed amount or nothing at all.
In other words, the premise behind a binary option is nothing but a simple yes-or-no proposition: Will an underlying asset be above a predicted price at a given time? The short answer is - yes, trading on binary options platforms is legal in the United States. However, while these financial options can be traded in the states, the trades must take place on a regulated US exchange.
Several trading platforms are either based in the United States or accept US investors even though they are based elsewhere. The concept of binary options trading is quite simple - all you have to do is choose between two possible outcomes. Before you start the process, make sure that you open an account at a regulated exchange, get familiar with the trading process, and choose the trading opportunities that are right for you. The best binary options brokers in the USA even offer demo accounts and round-the-clock expert help so that players can learn all about the features a particular platform offers before making an investment.
More categories More. Reviewed by fortunly. Follow us on YouTube Explaining complex financial terms in a way that the average Joe and Jane can understand. Advertiser Disclosure. Fortunly's Guide. This, however, does not influence the evaluations in our reviews. Learn more by reading our Advertiser Disclosure. Show More Open Account On Official Website. Pocket Option. Minimum deposit:. Minimum trade size:. Maximum returns:.
Demo account:. IQ Option. CX Markets. Our Methodology. Quick Breakdown. Pocket Option - Best asset variation. Open Account. Raceoption Open Account. Binarycent Open Account. Minimum deposit. Reason to use this platform: Round-the-clock video support Trading contests Low minimum-trade requirement Three account packages Withdrawals processed in an hour.
Deriv Open Account. CX Markets Open Account. Reason to use this platform: Regulated by Commodity Futures Trading Commission Excellent customer support Low fees and commissions Good choice for both new investors and trading veterans US-based company.
It was founded in Vanuatu in , and besides offering binary options, BinaryCent also enables forex and CFD trading. Expiry times can be as short as 60 seconds, and you can place a trade with as little as 10 cents. In addition to stocks, commodities, and forex pairs, BinaryCent also allows trading binary options on cryptocurrencies.
Depending on your trading style, you can choose to trade assets with turbo, intraday, or long-term strategies. You can use either the browser platform or the mobile application to trade using BinaryCent. It is important to note that you will need to enter your mobile number to use the mobile app. The broker has three account levels: bronze, silver, and gold. Higher-tiered accounts offer several perks like free trading masterclasses, live chat features, and a free account manager.
But perhaps the best thing about BinaryCent is its copy trading features. The brokerage makes it easy for traders to replicate the success of other traders. The exciting trading contests, demo account access, and excellent deposit bonuses make BinaryCent one of our top picks. Headquartered in London, RaceOption was founded in and attracted traders from across the globe with its user-friendly interface and numerous perks.
The trading platform is simplistic; however, every tool you may need is laid out in front of you for easy access. While straightforward the interface makes trading easier, it does not show in-depth statistics and offer several potent analysis tools like other platforms. The broker offers three account types: bronze, silver, and gold.
Features such as trading masterclasses, account managers, and integrated technical analysis unlock at higher tiers only. RaceOption can offer a large number of assets due to limited regulatory oversight by the Finance Group Corp. These features, coupled with the mobile trading app, demo account, and several withdrawal and deposit options, make RaceOption the right broker for new traders. Cyprus-based Binarium has been serving traders from across the globe since While any authority does not regulate the platform, it has an active user base and is considered a safe and reliable platform.
The brokerage offers 33 trading assets, and the selection includes currencies, cryptocurrencies, indices, and commodities. Furthermore, once your account gets verified, you will be able to withdraw your funds in an hour. As mentioned earlier, there is no such thing as a perfect brokerage.
The most critical aspect of a binary options brokerage is whether it is regulated or not. Oversight ensures that the money is held by the right parties and provides protocol in the event of a dispute. While most reputable brokerages are regulated by just one authority, some brokerages choose to be regulated by several bodies.
Regulatory oversight by more than one authority is becoming increasingly common, especially in the EU, since binary options are now under increased scrutiny. Ensuring that your brokerage is overseen by at least one authority is the right way to go. Regulation often restricts brokerages from offering more assets.
For this reason, some reputable brokerages choose to remain unregulated. Brokers offer sign-up bonuses to attract more clients. Most often, the bonus is in the form of a deposit match. One-off payments and risk-free trades are some other popular bonuses. Remember that all of these are subject to terms and conditions.
It is worth taking the time to read the terms and conditions before deciding to sign up. If the bonus is one of the bigger reasons for you to sign up, being disqualified from receiving the bonus makes it lose its attraction. Furthermore, using the bonus effectively can be a lot more difficult than it may seem. Most brokers do not allow you to withdraw the bonus after making signing up. It can only be used when making certain orders.
This can affect your trading style significantly and sometimes causes traders to trade beyond their budget, forgoing their money management system. A low minimum deposit makes it easier for you to get started with trading. In addition, smaller deposits keep risk to a minimum. It is also important to check the minimum trade amount. These can vary drastically between brokers. A higher minimum trade amount may not be a dealbreaker to some traders, but it can be a dealbreaker to many others.
Another significant consideration is the payout percentage the brokerage offers. However, comparing payouts between brokers is more complicated than it seems. Payouts change based on several factors, such as asset type and expiry time. Payouts also change from broker to broker as they manage their own risk. So even if you sign up with the brokerage offering the best payout on paper, you may find another broker offering a better payout later.
In general, exchanged-traded brokers like Nadex offer better payouts than over-the-counter brokers. Bear in mind that you are free to switch back and forth between brokers as you please. You could also make accounts with different brokerages and open trades with the brokerage that offers the best payout for that trade.
Several brokers aim to make trading binaries as simple as possible for new traders. Most brokerages offer free demo accounts, and using the demo account to get a feel for the platform will ensure you have a hassle-free trading experience later down the line. You can use a free demo account to test the platforms by yourself!
As a trader, you need good support and service. Most brokers are showing experience and knowledge in Binary Options. The Binary Options Brokers in this review give you the best and fastest support. According to that, they give traders sometimes a good education with webinars, videos, or strategies. For beginners, it is important to learn theoretically about Binary Options. It is a risky financial product. You can learn the basics and advanced trading knowledge in webinars with experts.
Most brokers first show you the basics like the functions of candlesticks and the use of technical indicators. Usually, a trading platform offers more than 30 different indicators. Sometimes it is hard to find a good working strategy with them. In addition, they give you some advanced knowledge and information to rule the markets.
Most brokers offer you a better education if your deposit is higher see account types. Another option of service is account types. For big traders with high deposits and high trading volume, some brokers offer different account types. As a trader, you can get great advantages. They offer you higher yields, better support, a bonus, or a cashback program. This is a way to get more profit in trading. That can be very helpful.
The broker should provide you with a free demo account. This is an account with virtual money. It is made to practice the financial product and to test the trading platform. You can trade Binary Options without any risk with this virtual money. It is completely free to use. Also, traders can develop new strategies or improve their trading skills. Advanced traders or beginners try to trade new assets for the best success with this account.
On the other hand, sometimes the broker gives its traders trading tips for analysis or strategies. The demo account is perfect for practicing that new knowledge. Trading is very complex and often it is not easy to find the right way. This is the main reason for using a demo account. Most traders gain experience first before they invest real money.
From my own experience, it is possible to get a high profit by trading in the right direction. Binary Options are not allowed in every country in the world. In addition, some countries forbid trade to use foreign brokers. Most brokers accept international traders, but there are restrictions for forbidden countries. You can not generalize it because the broker decides which customer he accepts.
Nowadays Binary Options become more and more popular for traders. It is a simple and efficient financial product. It is possible to generate a high payout in a short time horizon. Asia and Africa are growing very fast and people like the function of trading. The brokers in this review try to improve their service in this region of the world because the demand is very high. They improve their customer support with different languages and other services.
You can trade binary options by signing up with a brokerage that allows binary options trading. You can find the right brokerage by going through our guide above and reading the broker reviews. Every brokerage offers unique perks and has unique downsides. Further, traders have different needs, and what may be best for one trader may not work for another trader.
To find the best binary options broker, note the features you cannot go without, and find a brokerage that offers every feature you want. Regulatory oversight ensures that your money goes into the right hands, decreasing the risk of fraud. If a brokerage is not regulated, it does not indicate that it is not legitimate.
Many reputed brokerages avoid regulation so they can offer more assets to traders. Not every broker offers binary options — some offer just forex pairs while others offer CFDs. When looking for a broker for trading binary options, go through the assets it offers and ensure it allows binary options trading.
Concluding definitively that a certain brokerage is the best one you can sign up with is not easy. Some users like a simple layout, while others prefer having all the data on their screen. Quotex is in our comparison the best choice for traders! The platform is unique and offers a lot of functions for analysis and trading strategies. Deposits and withdrawals are working very fast without any fees. Compared to other Binary Options brokers, Quotex has the highest return on investment!
Nevertheless, trading platforms can vary in terms of quality. Platforms that have a simple layout can be more or less easy to use in comparison. This post highlights all of the pros and cons of the top brokerages in the industry. Your next step should be narrowing down brokerages and selecting the one that suits you best.
Our choice is definitely Quotex, as you saw in our comparison! We need your consent before you can continue on our website. Binary options are not promoted or sold to retail EEA traders. Binary Options trading involves high risk-trading. In some countries it is not allowed to use or only available for professional traders. Please check with your regulator. For more information read our full risk warning.
Olymp Trade has been a part of the options market since and has consistently improved their platform over the years. As of , there are over 25, users trading with Olymp Trade every day. Like most of the top brokers, Olymp Trade has a web-based platform and apps available for iPhone and Android. They have over 75 different underlying assets that you can trade with. Demo accounts are available if you'd like to test-drive the Olymp Trade platform. This broker has a variety of educational resources available to their clients including trading strategies, webinars, and more.
Owned by a company called Binary Group LTD and founded in , this broker is one of the oldest and most respected names in the binary options trading industry with over 1 million registered users worldwide.. You have the option of trading all major indices, commodities, currencies, and synthetic indices with expiry times ranging from 10 seconds to days. With their simple interface, you can execute a whole trade in just a matter of seconds.
To ensure trader safety, all capital deposited goes into a segregated bank account and held in a secure financial institution. Although Binary. Note: Binary. Binomo is a binary options broker with a high-end trading platform with the ability to trade binary options, CFDs, Forex, and cryptocurrency. Binomo is based out of St. Binomo doesn't offer as many assets to trade compared to other brokers. Overall, Binomo is a good binary trading platform but has limited assets compared to other brokers.
When 24Option was established in , they were primarly just a binary option platform. However, the company has shifted its focus to offering Forex and CFDs. Advanced traders will be happy to know that 24Option has the MetaTrader4 platform, which is very popular for its charting functionality and financial analysis tools. MT4 offers immediate order execution and accurate pricing in real-time. All account types get leverage up to The basic level comes with floating spreads as low as 2.
Platform also includes Stop Loss and Take Profit features to help minimize losses and maximize returns. Overall, 24Option is a good broker if you're looking for an advanced trading platform with CFD and Forex trading. Finmax has an asset index of over 70 markets, as well as a favorable trading conditions such as instant order execution, no spreads, a free demo without limits, and 48 hour withdrawals.
The Finmax trading software has a variety of expiry times, ranging from 30 seconds to 6 months. Finmax is one of the few brokers in the industry that have developed their own software for trading binary options, rather than relying on third party platforms such as SpotOption or TechFinancials. Established in and based out of Cyprus, Ayrex is one of the few unregulated brokers that exist in the industry. Ayrex offers binary option contracts on over 30 different underlying assets.
Ayrex is an unregulated broker, but they've already applied for licensing from the CySEC Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission , which has yet been granted. Ayrex specializes in short-term contracts with an expiry time as little as 30 seconds. Their customer support team is also very helpful as well. Overall, Ayrex might be suitable for some investors, but their small asset selection and lack of regulation should make traders hesitant. If you do decide to use Ayrex, make sure to take advantage of their free trading account so that you can practice trading binary options before depositing real money.
When you're choosing a binary broker, you should consider certain factors before you commit. Each of these components affects your trading experience. Identify the ones that are most important to you, and find a broker who offers those features, before you sign up. When it comes to binary options trading, it is essential that you have access to the markets from your smartphone or tablet. Most brokers offer a binary options app that allow you to access the markets and execute trades from anywhere.
Most binary options websites have information regarding their trading apps and which devices their platform is compatible with, such as Android or iPhone. When choosing the best binary options provider, make sure to take into consideration which assets are available to trade. Most brokers list their asset index on their websites for everyone to see.
The bigger their list of assets, the more opportunities you have to make a profit. Most binary options brokers have at least different markets that you can trade including Forex, commodities, stocks, and indices. Regulation and licensing is a key factor that you must consider before choosing the best binary options company to work with.
Regulated brokers must follow certain requirements that help protect binary options traders in the event of a dispute. In additional, regulation ensures client funds are held securely in segregated bank accounts. Although unregulated brokers have more risk associated with them, they do have some advantages such as the ability to offer sign-up bonuses to attract new traders. If binary options are prohibited in your region, such as Europe or India, using an offshore broker might be the only way to gain access to the binary options market.
If you're just getting started with binary options trading, it may be a good idea to choose a binary option broker with a low minimum deposit. Another thing to keep in mind is the minimum trade amount, which can vary between platforms. The higher the returns, the better. That's the whole purpose of binary options trading, after all. Before you sign up with a broker and invest your funds, know what you'll be getting back for each successful trade.
You don't want to invest a lot of money and only get a little—or worse, none—back. A binary options bonus is a way for some brokers to attract new customers. A bonus can come in several different forms including deposit match bonuses, sign-up bonuses, or risk-free trades. There are certain terms and conditions that have to be met before you can withdraw this money.
For example, you can't just sign up and then immediately withdraw your bonus funds. However, it's still a great way to mitigate your risk and increase your profits. Binary option demo accounts allow you to explore the broker's platform. You get a certain amount of virtual funds to use as you navigate the platform and learn how to predict the market.
You should also know how realistic the demo account is when compared to a live account. Demo accounts may not prepare you for the fast-paced, unpredictable nature of the real markets. Social trading is even more helpful in learning the market than a demo account or educational materials.
With social trading, you can observe VIP traders or friends as they trade assets. Social trading can help you improve your technique by watching someone more experienced.
Pocket Option - Best For USA Traders. BinaryCent - Best For Copy Trading. RaceOption - Best Bonuses.