Book value represents the value arrived at by subtracting the total liabilities from the total assets of the company. On dividing this value with the total number of shares outstanding for the company, we can arrive at book value per share. Book value is also known as Net Asset Value of a company. The market capitalization here is taken for the fully paid-up equity share of the company.
Business Update. No Recommendations details available for this stock. Check out other stock recos. For the quarter ended , the company has reported a Consolidated Total Income of Rs Company has reported net profit after tax of Rs Ashok Shah, Mr. Thompson P Gnanam, Mr. Pravir Kumar Vohra, Ms. Zohra Chatterji, Mr. Avtar Singh Monga, Mr. Rajeev Kumar Sinha, Mr. Sandeep Kumar Gupta.
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Key Metrics PE Ratio PE Ratio This is a ratio arrived at by dividing the current market price of a stock by its latest annual or annualized earnings per share. MCap MCap MCap or Market capitalization of a stock is calculated by multiplying the total number of shares outstanding of that particular stock with its current market price. Div Yield Dividend Yield Dividend Yield calculates the amount of full year dividend declared by a company as a percentage of the current market price of a stock.
Face Value Face Value Face value of a stock is the value ascribed to the stock as per the balance sheet of the company. Fundamental Analysis vs Technical Analysis Because 3i infotech km portal, a stock investor, tends to invest for the long term, the analysis used by an investor is a fundamental analysis of the company. Company fundamentals are basic and important information about the company such as the company's financial statements, company performance, the rate of development of its shares within a certain period of time, and others that can be used as a reference in assessing the company's performance in managing its business.
Investing in companies with good fundamentals will reduce the risk of loss for investors. Meanwhile, stock traders usually do more technical analysis. This analysis can help traders see the movement of stocks in the short term. This is because trading is more sensitive to market sentiment and market conditions than company fundamentals.
Therefore, the analysis carried out must be more thorough and detailed on all risk factors. Gaining profit is everyone's desire, any way will be done to achieve profit in life. This can be by doing business such as opening a business, selling other people's belongings, or maybe doing business with forex trading.
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Increasing exports leads to high forex reserves that will eventually strengthen the currency against other international currencies. This Report measures the activity level of purchasing managers in the manufacturing sector. A reading above 50 indicates expansion in the sector; below indicates contraction.
If the report indicates a decrease in purchases of manufacturing materials, the result may be a massive decline in production activity in the days to come; if the report indicates an increase in purchases, it can signal future growth in industrial production. Factory orders measures the change in the total value of new purchase orders placed with manufacturers for both durable and non-durable goods.
It is meant to capture the overall health of the entire manufacturing sector, measuring new orders, inventories, total shipments and unfilled orders for the month in question. It is thus a leading indicator of industrial production more so for Germany than US. Durable Goods US is a subset of Factory Orders that measures the change in the total value of new orders for long-lasting manufactured goods such as washing machines, including transportation items. It has more significance than factory orders for the US.
This report measures the change in the total inflation-adjusted value of output produced by manufacturers, mines, and utilities. Since it measures the change in the volume of goods produced, there is no need to worry about the distorting effects of inflation. Exports follow this report because it reacts fairly quickly to the ups and downs of the business cycle.
These surveys rate the current level of business conditions in the country. Changes in business sentiment can be an early signal of future economic activity such as spending, hiring and investment. Consumer spending is arguably a more reliable indicator of economic health than production because spending, not production touches virtually every household. If Hewlett-Packard manufactures computers it has a limited economic impact on the main street.
But if people start buying stuff, like cars, homes, computers, it has a substantial impact across the board. Consumer spending translates into sales, which translates into shipping, warehouse space, retail space, accounting, etc. Domestic spending tends to rise and fall in a general pattern as it is retail based, whereas production rises and falls in specific industries and depends more on international markets and the global economy.
Retail sales is another way of looking at economic activity, only from the angle of what is sold instead of produced. Retail sales are an important economic indicator because consumer spending drives large economies, particularly that of the US. Think of all of the people and companies involved in production, distribution, and selling the goods used on a daily basis.
This sector influences most of the other sectors. For instance, an increase in retail sales can trigger an increase in factory production, which may then require the purchase of more raw materials and machinery causing an increase in the PMI. Most developed economies now rely heavily on consumer liquidity to fuel the economy. Consumer expenditures drive the sales, imports, factory out, business investments and job growth of the US and many other countries.
Traders like to see a healthy increase in personal income and spending as good for the currency. High consumer demand encourages more growth and puts upward pressure on interest rates, which in turn makes the currency more attractive to foreign investors, particularly if it results in a bigger return on investment than other currencies. A weaker-than-expected report on consumer spending foreshadows lower interest rates, which is bearish for the currency.
However, if the country is in a large trade deficit, such as the United States, an overly strong retail sales number can signal trouble for the currency because many of the retail goods are imported, and a jump in imports increases demand for non-dollar currencies to pay for these foreign products.
The best portent of future consumer demand can be found in real disposable personal income, which is the income left over after taxes and then adjusted for by inflation. If consumers buy more, it is a sign of economic growth and prosperity.
The shortcoming of the retail sales report is that it represents only spending on goods and tells us nothing about what is spent on services, which makes up the other two-thirds of consumer spending. Furthermore, retail sales are measured only in nominal dollars, making no adjustment for inflation, which makes it difficult to tell if consumers purchased additional goods or simply paid more for them.
The measurement of how much more, or less, did consumers buy from retailers can give us a heads up on what future GDP growth might look, as changes in real GDP correlate with changes in real retail sales. Measures the change in the total value of sales at the retail level excluding automobiles. This index examines how consumers feel about jobs, the economy and spending.
If they are confident and happy, they are more likely to shop, travel, invest, but if they are doubtful and unhappy, they can tighten up on their spending and the economy may slow down as a result. Unfortunately, history has shown that the relationship between consumer confidence and spending is not as close as one might intuitively think. The strongest evidence of confidence is found at the cash register, which means in retail sales above. However, long term the six-month moving average of consumer confidence levels has proven to be a better indicator of future household spending.
Traders like to invest in currencies that have upbeat consumers, as it means a stabilizing of interest rates, increasing demand for currency, whereas depressed consumers raises the prospects of falling interest rates, which bodes ill for the currency. Household income represents the capacity to spend, personal spending and retail sales represent a gauge on spending, and consumer confidence represents the willingness to spend. Keep in mind that consumers in the last 10 years have based much of their spending on personal credit, or borrowed money, and we have seen the fallout of this with the bursting of the credit bubble.
Household income becomes more important long term forecast of future spending because it is based on what is real; only a growing consumer income can grow an economy if consumer spending represents a large chunk of it. Growing, inflation adjusted economic activity GDP must be fueled by a growing, inflation adjusted consumer income. If the official GDP has been going up, and the household income has been going down, then it speaks to the fact that growing economy cannot be fueled by an equally growing consumer income and thus it is doomed to retract.
For instance, in the U. In the absence of income growth, debt expansion can act as a short-term prop for an economy, but in the US and Europe, it runs its full course. Housing Starts and Sales relate to the construction of new homes and selling of new and existing homes, both of which can come surprisingly close to foreseeing the future direction of an economy. Residential real estate is among the first sectors to shut down when the economy nears a recession and blooms again when the economy starts back up.
It outstrips the rest in being acutely sensitive to interest rates. An overheated economy and housing market drives up interest rates and mortgage prices, which eventually depresses demand for homes and discourages future construction.
Conversely, when the economy weakens, home prices fall along with interest rates and home buying becomes rekindled when prices and rates become more affordable. Sales of homes, in turn, can indirectly stimulate the economy because sellers use the capital gain from the sale of one house to buy another, which invariably means additional spending on furniture and appliances, as well as greater commissions to real estate agents, moving companies and mortgage bankers.
Moreover, an increase in home sales is an unmistakable sign that buyers are confident about their jobs and future income growth. A strong housing start report can be bullish for the currency because it supports a scenario of higher corporate profits and a firming of US interest rates. More home sales indicates a stronger consumer base and a stronger currency. Conversely, a currency can fall with weak housing starts because it signals slower economic growth and thus the potential of central bankers to lower interest rates.
Central bankers will lower interest rates during a sluggish housing market, causing the currency to depreciate as foreigners choose to seek out more lucrative investment opportunities outside the country. Housing starts and permits record the number of new homes being built.
A drop-off in home construction signals that the broad economy is slowing down while a rebound in housing starts and home buying signals a pickup in the economy. This report monitors the volume of home sales nationwide, and it is a good way to gauge housing demand in the country.
A drop-off, or rebound, in-home sales signals a turning point in the economy. Interest rate is the biggest force to influence home sales, with every percentage point increase in mortgage rate reducing home sales by , units. Moreover, if consumer spending is about to change direction you will see it change here first, as such a big expense attracts prospective buyers who are content with their income, job security and economic outlook. When home buying wanes, banks will cut back on construction loans, investment falls away, and with it demand for building supplies, appliances and construction workers.
Global investors will shift their assets in response to geopolitical developments. Like all markets, the currency market is affected by what is going on in the world. Natural disasters like earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, hurricanes can cause horrific devastation to a country and its economy, but the effect on the home currency is hard to predict.
We know that the currency move can be dramatic, but the direction of the move is hard to gauge. For instance, when the earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, , there were thoughts the Yen will bound to weaken; after all, this disaster killed over 10, people and leveled whole towns and threatened the entire country with major radiation from the Fukushima nuclear-plant meltdown. One later learned that the Yen surged against other major denominations in the expectation that companies will repatriate the currency to help pay for rebuilding efforts.
But this repatriation idea for currency strength cannot be so easily extended to other nations. Japan like China is unique in having an incredible amount of stockpiled foreign currency particularly US dollars as a result of decades-long positive trade surpluses, and consequently, its citizens and corporations can repatriate sell its foreign investments and convert back to Yen so much more than most other industrialized countries.
The United States is in an opposite predicament: it has had decades-long trade deficits, and most of its citizens and corporations are living out of borrowed funds. Hurricane Katrina caused the US Dollar to lose pips against the Euro in the immediate aftermath of the event on August 25, , because speculators believed that the government would incur additional deficit spending to rebuild New Orleans.
These damage consumer and business confidence, hampering economic growth. They also increase the likelihood of war, and consequently, a budget deficit to support associated spending. The attacks caused the dollar to lose pips against the Euro in the immediate aftermath of the event, and it signaled the beginning of a 7-year bearish cycle for the dollar as the Bush government beat the drums of war.
War is destructive to everything and everyone it comes in contact with, including fiat paper currencies that are used to help fuel it. Every major war in the past century has brought inflation to some degree. The big reason is that wars are massively expensive and must be paid for somehow.
Wars require resources that civilians would otherwise use that need to be diverted to the war effort. Wars require deficit spending, which is inflationary in itself, but it is a deficit spending quite different from domestic deficit spending. However, wars are special in that vast amounts of money are spent on things meant to be blown up or technology not later needed by civilians , so you have the double whammy of money staying at home to work its evil magic, while the goods disappear in exploding bombs that have no residual benefit.
Prices and profits rise while wages and their purchasing power fall. Confidence in or wariness of a new administration can cause investors to flock to or flee from the home currency. Money is attracted to strong, effective leaders. If the new leaders are voted into office and do not have the confidence and wisdom to run a country effectively, then money will leave the country. If the new leaders want to borrow and spend more money on social programs or foreign wars than they can collect in taxes, money will leave the country.
If the new leaders want to nationalize any major corporations or industries, money will leave the country. If the new leaders want to impose sharp tax increases or unnecessary regulations, money will leave the country.
The rule of thumb is money is attracted to governments which are modest in ambition and friendly to business and investment. When other countries are in a state of conflict, their respective currencies may be perceived as unstable. It used to be that investors would flock to the US dollar as the safer bet. Sometimes this is still the case. History has shown that when oil-rich countries have trouble, then the US dollar falls when oil prices surge.
Increasing oil prices cause inflation and dollar devaluation, and investors flee to other safe haven monetary instruments such as gold. Flight to safety means that traders move their money from one country to another in response to global financial risk. It used to be that the US dollar was the de facto currency that investors would turn to in response to increased global financial risk. Sometimes this still holds true.
For instance, in the banking crisis of , investors fled to the safety of the US dollar as all the markets in the world crashed. But increasingly, with the steady weakening of the US dollar and investors worried about the European sovereign debt and US debt ceiling, investors have been fleeing to gold and Swiss franc. Gold has a been see as a real monetary instrument immune to inflation as opposed to a fiat paper currency doomed to inflationary extinction.
The Swiss have both a fiscal and current-account surplus, a low inflation rate and relatively low debt-to-GDP ratio, and consequently, investors flee to the safety of the Swiss franc when the Swiss Central Bank does not overly manipulate it. Share the following link to refer others to this page using our affiliate referral program. Share this page! Academy Home. Learn Forex. How to Trade Forex: Step-by-step Guide. How Technical Analysis Works. How Fundamental Analysis Works.
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Below are the top 10 fundamental forces that drive the currency markets. Source: Wikipedia. Is this article helpful? Sign Up. Remember Me. Join our mailing list? Receive contest notifications. Forgotten Password. Foreign investors are now less inclined to invest in a lower interest-bearing currency and bonds. Traders might use this surging inflation data from the perspective of a central banker so worried about it that he needs to raise interest rates to control it.
Raising interest rates, in turn, strengthens the currency. Traders might see this from the perspective of a central banker who now feels more free to lower interest rates or initiate new rounds of quantitative easing money printing in light of benign inflation data and a faltering economy.
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Typically, the busiest part of the month is the first two weeks. During this period, key economic indicators are released. Economic indicators include gross domestic product GDP , consumer price index CPI and the unemployment or jobs report such as the US nonfarm payrolls report. These three are the top economic indicators that directly have an influence on the currency pair. They are however lagging. During the rest of the month and especially in the last two weeks of the month, most of the economic releases made are based on surveys which are forward-looking indicators.
These types of releases can influence the market sentiment but only to a certain extent. A fundamental analyst will need to go through the leading and lagging indicators in order to understand what is happening in the markets. The central bank policy meetings are one of the most important events in the forex markets. After all, if you scratch the surface, the forex markets move because of interest rates and interest rate expectations. The interest rates are set by central bank officials based on the policy-makers assessment of the economy.
Most central banks have a mandate which is inflation targeting. The Federal Reserve has a dual mandate of both unemployment and inflation. Top 5 Trading Magazines Worth Subscribing. Understanding this will help forex traders to focus on the economic reports that matter or will influence inflation and GDP for example.
The central bank decisions also give out forward guidance. This helps the markets to prepare for any eventual policy action from the central bank. The forward guidance can play an important role. Markets tend to typically rally or fall based on forward guidance. Sometimes, these strong market moves can come purely based on a misinterpretation of the forward guidance or at times the markets align correctly to the central banker speeches.
This was just a forward guidance from Draghi about what the central bank could do. As a result, traders started to buy the euro as a result in hopes that monetary policy will be tightened. Such strong moves can often not be explained by technical analysis, and therefore traders also need to focus on the fundamental analysis aspect as well.
Relying purely on just fundamental analysis or technical analysis can be similar to trading half blind. If you refer back to the above example, the sudden and sharp movements in EURUSD makes more sense when you combine both these aspects of analysis. When looking to trade a currency pair, the first step is for the trader to build up the technical landscape, including potential target levels and invalidation or stop loss levels.
Once this is done, traders need to focus on the fundamental aspects and also make a note of any events or speeches that could impact the markets. Sometimes, it can be easy, and at times you will find that fundamental and technical analysis does not agree with each other. While it can get a bit complex, the bottom line is the fact that traders need to have a full understanding of the market before they can trade successfully.
Current quote is 1. The main reason for global sales is the fear of increasing recession in the US economy. After last Friday the US published the inflation report for May, demonstrating growth to the years high of 8. The US stock market plummeted yesterday. The major currency pair dropped to its 2-week lows.
The current quote for the instrument is 1. The major currency pair has recovered and is now waiting for signals from the European regulator. All eyes are on the European Central Bank today. The benchmark Nothing can prevent the Yen from devaluating. The current quote for the instrument is The process started on 27 May and the Yen has dropped 5. The c The Yen continues falling. In this light, the Yen is forced to quickly ret The Aussie is coming up smiling. The current quote for the instrument is 0.
The Yen dropped to new lows. The cryptocurrency market digest BTC. The Euro is avoiding risks. The major currency pair is consolidating on Monday. The key reason for this decline is another global risk aversion. So, the ne It seems like market players managed to take their minds off The Aussie is looking quite strong against the USD, which is no The Euro gave in.
The major currency pair is hanging not far from its weekly lows. The sta After fixing above this level, the BT The Aussie is retreating. The Aussie had a great run and now requires a correction. EUR is declining a little bit. The major currency pair continues slowly falling on Wednesday. The external background is slowly changing to cautious. In this situation, i The major currency pair is consolidating on Tuesday but may resume rising if the situation allows.
The beginning of this week was rather calm from th The Yen is retreating again. The global risk attitude is currently quite positive. This is one of the reasons why the demand for the Yen declined. However, in the medium run, the crypto still looks complicated and dubious. Over past week, the BTC lost 4. Early in the week, the major currency pair is still rising.